Pashtunistán

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Territorio habitado por pashtos en verde (ano 1980).

Pashtunistán (en paxto: پښتونستان; literalmente "terra de paxtos")[1] é unha rexión histórica e xeográfica habitada polo pobo paxto e dividida entre as modernas Afganistán e Paquistán,,[2] onde xurdiu a cultura, a linguae a identidade nacional paxta.[3][4][5] Outros nomes empregados historicamente para a rexión inclúen "Pashtūnkhwā" (en paxto: پښتونخوا) e "Afghānistān" (en paxto: افغانستان), dende cando menos o século III d.C. en diante.[6][7][8] Pashtunistán limita con Irán polo oeste, a rexión de Turquestán de fala persa e turca polo norte, Caxemira polo nordeste, o Punjab polo leste e Baluchistán polo sur.[9] A rexión tamén recibe os noemes de Pakhtūnistān,[6] Pathānistān[10][11] ou Pashtūnkhwa.

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

  1. As diversas grafías son o resultado de diferentes pronunciacións en varios dialectos paxtos.
  2. USFCA (ed.). "The Changed World of South Asia: Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India after September 11" (PDF). Arquivado dende o orixinal (PDF) o 08 de xullo de 2021. Consultado o 3 de decembro de 2021. 
  3. Nath, Samir (2002). Dictionary of Vedanta. Sarup & Sons. p. 273. ISBN 81-7890-056-4. Consultado o 2010-09-10. 
  4. "The History of Herodotus Chapter 7". Translated by George Rawlinson. The History Files. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 2012-02-01. Consultado o 2007-01-10. 
  5. Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936 2. Leipzig: BRILL. p. 150. ISBN 90-04-08265-4. Consultado o 2010-09-24. 
  6. 6,0 6,1 Students' Britannica India 1–5. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2000. ISBN 9780852297605. Ghaffar Khan, who opposed the partition, chose to live in Pakistan, where he continued to fight for the rights of the Pashtun minority and for joining Afghanistan. Afghanistan means literally land of the pashtun people! the Homeland of the Pashtuns is Afghanistan 
  7. "Afghan and Afghanistan". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Consultado o 2010-10-24. 
  8. Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah (1560). "The History of India, Volume 6, chpt. 200, Translation of the Introduction to Firishta's History (p.8)". Sir H. M. Elliot. Londres: Packard Humanities Institute. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 2013-07-26. Consultado o 2010-08-22. 
  9. Dan Caldwell (17 de febreiro de 2011). Vortex of Conflict: U.S. Policy Toward Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iraq. Stanford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-8047-7666-0. A majority of Pashtuns live south of the Hindu Kush (the 500-mile mountain range that covers northwestern Pakistan to central and eastern Pakistan) and with some Persian speaking ethnic groups. Hazaras and Tajiks live in the Hindu Kush area, and north of the Hindu Kush are Persians and Turkic ethnic groups. 
  10. The Modern Review, Volume 86. Prabasi Press Private. 1949. The Afghan Government is actively sympathetic towards their demand for a Pathanistan. It has been declared by the Afghan Parliament that Afghanistan does not recognise the Durand line... 
  11. The Spectator 184. F.C. Westley. 1950. Instead it adopted the programme of an independent "Pathanistan" — a programme calculated to strike at the very roots of the new Dominion. More recently the Pathanistan idea has been taken up by Afghanistan.