Cameria

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Territorio aproximado de Cameria segundo varios puntos de vista. En vermello, o kaza otomán de Çamlık. En negro, a máxima extensión da lingua albanesa na rexión. En verde, a versión máis incluente da definición da rexión feita por R. Elsie.[1]

Cameria (en albanés: Çamëria; en grego: Τσαμουριά, Tsamouriá; en turco: Çamlık)[2] é un termo usado principalmente polos albaneses das partes costeiras da rexión de Epiro no sur de Albania e noroeste de Grecia, asociado tradicionalmente coa poboación de fala albanesa coñecida como Chams.[1][3] Durante un breve período (1909-1912), tres kazas (Filat, Aydonat e Margiliç) foron combinados polos otomán nun distrito administrativo coñecido como "Çamlak sancak".[4] Ademais de usos xeográficos, o topónimo adquiriu connotacións irredentistas en Albania.[5][6] Durante o período de entreguerras o topónimo era de uso común[7] e era o nome oficial da área baixo o río Acheron en tódolos documentos de Grecia.[8] Hoxe é un termo obsoleto en grego,[9] sobrevivindo só nalgunhas cancións populares. A maioría de Cameria está dividida entre as unidades rexionais gregas de Greek Thesprotia, Preveza e Ioannina, e o concello de Konispol na parte máis setentrional de Albania. O topónimo grego Epirus é máis amplo e existiu dende a antigüidade, e o de Thesprotia tamén reflicte un pasado antigo, e dados os sentimentos negativos cara ao irredentismo albanés, o termo Cameria non é usado polos veciños do lado grego da fronteira.

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Elsie, Robert e Bejtullah D. Destani (2012). The Cham Albanians of Greece: A Documentary History. IB Tauris. ISBN 978-1-780760-00-1. p. XXIX. "Chameria is a mountainous region of the southwestern Balkan Peninsula that now straddles the Greek-Albanian border. Most of Chameria is in the Greek Province of Epirus, corresponding largely to the prefectures of Thesprotia and Preveza, but it also includes the southernmost part of Albania, the area around Konispol. It is approximately 10,000 square kilometres in size and has a current, mostly Greek-speaking population of about 150,000. As an historical region, Chameria, also spelled Chamuria, Chamouria or Tsiamouria, is sometimes confused with Epirus which is in fact a much larger area that includes more inland territory in northwestern Greece, for example, the town of Janina/loannina, and also much of southern Albania. Geographically speaking, Chameria begins to the north at the rivers Pavlle and Shalës in the southern part of Albania. It stretches southwards along the Ionian coastline in Greece down to Preveza and the Gulf of Arta, which in the nineteenth century formed the border between Albania and Greece. It does not include the island of Corfu or the region of Janina to the east. The core or central region of Chameria, known in Greek as Thesprotia, could be said to be the basins of the Kalamas and Acheron Rivers. It was the Kalamas River, known in ancient times as the 'Thyamis, that gave Chameria its name."
  2. Gawrych, George (2006). The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874–1913. London: IB Tauris. p. 23. ISBN 9781845112875.  "According to the Ottoman administrative system of the 1880s, Albanians claimed Toskalık or Toskland as encompassing the sancaks of Ergiri, Preveze, Berat and Yanya in the province of Yanya and the sancaks of Görice, Manastir, and Elbasan in the province of Manastir. Toskalık also divided into three parts, Toskalık, Laplık and Çamlık... Chamland (Çamlık) encompassed Margalic, Aydonat, and Filat."
  3. Baltsiotis, Lambros (2011). "The Muslim Chams of Northwestern Greece: The grounds for the expulsion of a "non-existent" minority community". European Journal of Turkish Studies. Social Sciences on Contemporary Turkey (European Journal of Turkish Studies) (12). doi:10.4000/ejts.4444.  para. 5-6. "During the beginning of the 20th Century, the northwestern part of the Greek region of Epirus was mostly populated by an Albanian-speaking population, known under the ethnonyme "Chams" [Çamë, Çam (singular)in Albanian, Τσ(ι)άμηδες, Τσ(ι)άμης in Greek]. The Chams are a distinct ethno-cultural group which consisted of two integral religious groups: Orthodox Christians and Sunni Muslims. This group lived in a geographically wide area, expanding to the north of what is today the Preveza prefecture, the western part of which is known as Fanari [Frar in Albanian], covering the western part of what is today the prefecture of Thesprotia, and including a relatively small part of the region which today constitutes Albanian territory. These Albanian speaking areas were known under the name Chamouria [Çamëri in Albanian, Τσ(ι)αμουριά or Τσ(ι)άμικο in Greek]."
  4. Hartmann, Elke (2016). Die Reichweite des Staates: Wehrpflicht und moderne Staatlichkeit im Osmanischen Reich 1869-1910. Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh. p. 118. ISBN 9783657783731.  "Die kazas Filat, Aydonat, Margiliç und die Stadt Parga bildeten seit 1909 einen eigenen sancak Çamlak."
  5. Kretsi, Georgia.The Secret Past of the Greek-Albanian Borderlands. Cham Muslim Albanians: Perspectives on a Conflict over Historical Accountability and Current Rights in Ethnologica Balkanica, Vol. 6, p. 172.
  6. Jahrbücher für Geschichte und Kultur Südosteuropas: JGKS, Volumes 4–5 Slavica Verlag, 2002.
  7. Hammond, Nicholas (1967). Epirus: the Geography, the Ancient Remains, the History and Topography of Epirus and Adjacent Areas. Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780198142539. p.27. "The present distribution of the Albanian-speaking villages bears little relation to the frontier which was drawn between Greece and Albania after the First World War. In Map 2 I have shown most of the Greek speaking villages in Albanian Epirus and some of the Albanian-speaking villages in Greek Epirus. The map is based on observations made by Clarke and myself during our travels between 1922 and 1939."; p.27. "This wave extended further down the coast into the low-lying area of the Kalamas, the Tsamouria."; p. 28. "Tsamouria is a word which..... Clarke and I were both familiar with it, and it was in common use."; p.50. "Loutsa lies on a saddle of the ridge, which forms the watershed between the Acheron plain and the streams running south-west into the sea, and it is the most southerly of the villages of Tsamouria, the Albanian speaking area of which Margariti and Paramythia are centres."; p.76. "The canton of Margariti. This canton forms the heart of the Tsamouria, the region of Albanian-speaking villages."
  8. Baltsiotis. The Muslim Chams of Northwestern Greece. 2011. footnote 2. "In certain sources Chamouria includes the Greek-speaking area to the east of the city of Filiati and does not include the Albanian speaking area of Fanari, named alternatively "Prevezaniko". The official name of the area north of the Acheron river is Chamouria in all Greek state documents for the whole Interwar period."
  9. The Greek encyclopedia "Papyrus-Larousse" (Πάπυρος-Λαρούς), c.1965 defines "Tsamouria" (article "Τσαμουριά") as "The older name ... of the modern area of Thesprotia" and directs to article "Thesprotia" (Θεσπρωτία).

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