Sinfonía coral

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Hector Berlioz foi o primeiro en empregar o concepto de sinfonía coral para unha composición musical — o seu Roméo et Juliette.

Unha sinfonía coral é unha composición musical para orquestra, coro e, en ocasións, solistas, que se adhire polo xeral no seu funcionamento interno e arquitectura musical global á forma musical sinfónica.[1] O termo "sinfonía coral" neste contexto foi acuñado por Hector Berlioz cando describiu a obra Roméo et Juliette na súa introdución de cinco parágrafos para a obra.[2] O antecedente directo da sinfonía coral e a Novena Sinfonía de Ludwig van Beethoven. A Novena de Beethoven incorpora a parte da Ode an die Freunde (Himno á alegría), un poema de Friedrich Schiller, co texto cantado por solistas e coro no último movemento. É o primeiro exemplo do uso da voz humana por parte dun compositor maior no mesmo nivel que os instrumentos nunha sinfonía.[a]

Uns poucos compositores do século XIX, en particular Felix Mendelssohn e Franz Liszt, seguiron a Beethoven na produción de obras sinfónicas corais. No século XX o xénero desenvolveuse notablemente, con obras destacadas de compositores como Gustav Mahler, Sergei Rachmaninov, Igor Stravinskii, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Benjamin Britten e Dmitri Shostakovich, entre outros. Os últimos anos do século XX e o inicio do século XXI viron a aparición de máis obras neste xénero, entre elas composicións de Peter Maxwell Davies, Tan Dun, Philip Glass, Hans Werner Henze, Krzysztof Penderecki, e William Bolcom.

O termo "sinfonía coral" indica a intención do compositor de que a obra sexa sinfónica, mesmo coa fusión de elementos narrativos ou dramáticos que derivan da inclusión da palabra. Con este obxectivo, as palabras son frecuentemente tratadas sinfonicamente para perseguir fins non narrativos, polo uso de repeticións frecuentes de palabras e frases importantes, e transposición, reordenación ou omisión de pasaxes do conxunto do texto. O texto frecuentemente determina o esquema básico sinfónico, mentres que a orquestra transmite as ideas musicais nunha importancia similar á do coro e os solistas.[4] Mesmo cun énfase sinfónico, unha sinfonía coral é frecuentemente influenciada na forma musical e no contido por unha narración externa, mesmo en partesonde non hai canto.

Historia[editar | editar a fonte]

Ludwig van Beethoven redefiniu o xénero sinfónico introducindo letra e voces na súa Novena Sinfonía.[5]

A finais do século XVIII a sinfonía estableceuse como o xénero instrumental máis prestixioso.[6] Aínda que o xénero fora desenvolvido con considerable intensidade ao longo dun século e apareceu nun amplo rango de ocasións, era xeralmente empregada como unha obra de inicio ou de peche; no medio estarían obras que incluíran solistas vocais ou instrumentais.[7] A causa da ausencia de texto escrito para o seu enfoque, esta foi vista como un vehículo para o entretemento máis que para as ideas sociais, morais ou intelectuais.[6] A medida que a sinfonía foi medrando en tamaño e significado artístico, grazas en parte aos esforzos na forma de compositores como Haydn, Mozart e Beethoven, tamén acumulou prestixio.[7] Tamén houbo un cambio de actitude cara a música instrumental en xeral, e a ausencia de texto, antes visto como unha desvantaxe, pasou a ser considerado como unha virtude.[6]

En 1824, Beethoven redefiniu o xénero sinfónico na súa Novena Sinfonía introducindo texto e voz un xénero previamente instrumental. A acción abriu un debate sobre o futuro da propia sinfonía.[5] O emprego de palabras de Beethoven, segundo Richard Wagner, mostrou "os límites da música puramente instrumental" e marcaba "o final da sinfonía como un xénero vital".[8] Outros non estaban seguros de como proceder—se emulando a Novena escribindo fianis corais, ou desenvolvendo o xénero sinfónico dun xeito puramete instrumental.[5] Finalmente, segundo o musicólogo Mark Evan Bonds, a sinfonía foi vista "un drama cósmico omnicomprensivo que trascendeu o reino do son por si só".[9]

Algúns compositores emularon e ampliaron o modelo de Beethoven. Berlioz amosou na súa sinfonía coral Roméo et Juliette un novo enfoque á natureza épica da sinfonía empregando voces para mesturar a música e a narración, mais reservou momentos cruciais desta narrativa só para a orquestra.[5] Ao facelo, segundo Bonds, Berlioz ilustra aos compositores posteriores "novos enfoques para abordar a metafísica no ámbito da sinfonía".[5] Mendelssohn escribiu o seu Lobgesang como unha obra para coro, solistas e orquestra. Etiquetando a obra como unha cantata sinfónica", ampliou o final coral a nove movementos incluíndo seccións para solistas vocais, recitativos e seccións para coro; isto fixo a parte vocal máis longa que as tres seccións puramente orquestrais que a preceden.[10] Liszt escribiu dúas sinfonías corais, seguindo nestas formas de varios movementos as mesmas prácticas compositivas e os mesmos obxectivos programáticos que establecera nos seus poemas sinfónicos.[9]

Krzysztof Penderecki escribiu a súa Sétima Sinfonía para celebrar o terceiro milenio da cidade de Xerusalén.

Despois de Liszt, Mahler tomou o legado de Beethoven nas súas primeiras sinfonías, no que Bonds chama "os seus esforzos por un final utópico". Para este fin Mahler empregou un coro e solistas no final da súa Segunda Sinfonía, a "Auferstehung" ("Resurrección"). Na súa Terceira, escribiu un final puramente instrumental segindo a dous movementos vocais, e na súa Cuarta un final vocal é cantado por unha soprano solista.[11] Logo de escribir as súas Quinta, Sexta e Sétima sinfonías como obras puramente instrumentais, Mahler regresou ao estilo do "festival sinfónico cerimonial" na súa Oitava Sinfonía, que integra o texto ao longo de toda a obra.[12] Logo de Mahler, a sinfonía coral converteuse nun xénero máis común, experimentando diversos trocos compositivos no proceso. Algúns compositores como Britten, Rachmaninoff, Shostakovich e Ralph Vaughan Williams, seguiron a forma sinfónica de xeito estrito.[13][14][15][16] Outros, como Havergal Brian, Alfred Schnittke e Karol Szymanowski, escolleron ampliar a forma sinfónica ou empregar diferentes estruturas sinfónicas en conxunto.[17][18][19]

Ao longo da historia da sinfonía coral téñense composto obras que reflectiron obxectivos programáticos de composición particulares. Unha das primeiras foi Lobgesang de Mendelssohn, encargada pola cidade de Leipzig en 1840 para celebrar o 400 aniversario da invención dos tipos móbiles por Johannes Gutenberg.[10] Máis dun século despois, a Segunda Sinfonía de Henryk Górecki, subtitulada "Kopernikowska", foi encargada en 1973 pola Kosciuszko Foundation en Nova York para celebrar o 500 aniversario do astrónomo Nicolao Copérnico.[20] Entre esas dúas obras, en 1930, o director de orquestra Serge Koussevitzky pediulle a Stravinskii que escribira a Symphonie des Psaumes para o 50 aniversario da Boston Symphony Orchestra[21] e, en 1946, o compositor Henry Barraud, daquela á cabeza de Radiodiffusion Française, encargoulle a Darius Milhaud a composición da súa Terceira Sinfonía, subtitulada "Te Deum", para conmemorar o final da Segunda Guerra Mundial.[22][23]

Nos últimos anos do século XX e principios do XXI, compuxéronse máis sinfonías corais. A Sétima Sinfonía de Krzysztof Penderecki foi escrita para conmemorar o terceiro milenio da cidade de Xerusalén.[24] A Symphony 1997: Heaven Earth Mankind de Tan Dun conmemora a Transferencia da soberanía de Hong Kong ese ano á República Popular da China.[25] A Quinta Sinfonía de Philip Glass foi un encargo como moitas outras pezas para celebrar o inicio do século XXI.[26] A sinfonía coral de Paul Spicer Unfinished Remembering (2014, libreto de Euan Tait) foi encargada para conmemorar o centenario do inicio da Primeira Guerra Mundial.

Características xerais[editar | editar a fonte]

Como nun oratorio ou unha ópera, unha sinfonía coral é unha obra musical para orquestra, coro e (frecuentemente) voces solistas, aínda que compuxéronse algunhas para voces sen acompañamento.[1] Berlioz, quen en 1858 acuñou o termo para describir a súa obra Roméo et Juliette, explicou a peculiar relación que el concibía entre a voz e a orquestra:[2]


Even though voices are often used, it is neither a concert opera nor a cantata, but a choral symphony. If there is singing, almost from the beginning, it is to prepare the listener's mind for the dramatic scenes whose feelings and passions are to be expressed by the orchestra. It is also to introduce the choral masses gradually into the musical development, when their too sudden appearance would have damaged the compositions's unity. A pesar de que as voces son de uso frecuente, non é nin unha ópera de concerto, nin unha cantata, senón unha sinfonía coral. Se nela cántase, case dende o principio, é para preparar a mente do oínte para as escenas dramáticas cuxos sentimentos e paixóns exprésanse coa orquestra. Tamén é para introducir as masas corais pouco a pouco no desenvolvemento musicla, xa que a súa aparición demasiado repentina tería danado a unidade da composición.

A diferenza dos oratorios ou óperas, que están xeralmente estruturados dramaturxicamente en arias, recitativos e coros, unha sinfonía coral está estruturada como unha sinfonía, en movementos. Pode empregar o esquema tradicional de catro movementos cun rápido como movemento inicial, un movemento lento, un scherzo e un finale,[1] ou como ocorre con moitas sinfonías instrumentais, pode usar unha estrutura diferente de movementos.[27] O texto escrito nunha sinfonía coral está ao mesmo nivel que a música, como nun oratorio, e o coro e os solistas comparten papel cos instrumentos.[28] Co tempo o uso do texto permitiu á sinfonía coral evolucionar dende unha sinfonía instrumental cun coral final, como na Novena de Beethoven, cara a unha composición que pode empregar voces e instrumentos ao longo de toda a obra, como na Symphonie des Psaumes de Stravinskii ou a Oitava Sinfonía de Mahler.[28][29]

Ás veces o texto pode dar un esquema básico que correspóndese co esquema de catro movementos dunha sinfonía. Por exemplo, e estrutura de catro partes do poema de Edgar Allan Poe The Bells, unha progresión dende a xuventude ata o matrimonio, madurez, suxeriulle os catro movementos dunha sinfonía a Sergei Rachmaninov, o que deu como resultado a súa sinfonía coral do mesmo nome.[14] O texto pode animar a un compositor a ampliar a sinfonía coral máis aló dos límites habituais do xénero sinfónico, como fixo Berlioz co seu Roméo et Juliette, aínda que aínda permanece dentro da intención estrutural ou estética básica da forma sinfónica.[30] Isto tamén pode influir o contido musical en partes nas que non hai canto, como en Roméo et Juliette. Aquí, Berlioz permite expresar á orquestra a maior parte do drama na música instrumental e aforra palabras para as seccións expositivas e narrativas da obra.[31]

Relación entre as palabras e a música[editar | editar a fonte]

Como nun oratorio, o texto escrito nunha sinfonía coral pode ser tan importante como a música, e o coro e solistas poden participar en igualdade de condicións cos instrumentos na exposición e desenvolvemento das ideas musicais.[32] O texto tamén pode axudar a determinar se o compositor segue a forma sinfónica dun xeito estrito, como no caso de Rachmaninov,[14] Britten[13] e Shostakovich,[15] ou se sobrepasan a forma sinfónica, como no caso de Berlioz,[30] Mahler[33] e Havergal Brian.[34] Ás veces a elección do texto ten levado ao compositor a estruturas sinfónicas diferentes, como nos casos de Szymanowski,[18] Schnittke[19] e, de novo, Havergal Brian.[17] O compositor pode tamén optar por tratar o texto de xeito fluído, dun xeito máis parecido á música que á narración.[35] Tal foi o caso de Vaughan Williams, Mahler e Philip Glass.[36]

Tratamento musical do texto[editar | editar a fonte]

O uso do verso libre de Walt Whitman foi apreciado polos compositores que procuraban un enfoque máis fluído para establecer o texto.

As notas de programa de Vaughan Williams para A Sea Symphony explica a como o texto ía ser tratado como a música. O compositor escribiu, "O esquema da obra é sinfónico máis que narrativo ou dramático, e isto pode xustificar a frecuente repetición de palabras e frases importantes que ocorren no poema. As palabras e a música están tratadas sinfonicamente".[32] Os poemas de Walt Whitman inspirárono para escribir a sinfonía,[16] e o uso de verso libre de Whitman tornouse apreciado nun momento no que a fluidez da estrutura volveuse máis atractiva que os tradicionais axustes métricos do texto. Esta fluidez axudou a facilitar o tratamento sinfónico non narrativo do texto que Vaughan Williams tiña en mente. No terceiro movemento en particular, o texto é vagamente descritivo e pode ser "empurrado pola música", algunhas liñas repítense, algunhas non consecutivas no texto seguen inmediatamente a outras na música, e algunhas desaparecen por completo.[35]

Vaughan Williams non foi o único compositor que seguiu un enfoque non narrativo ao seu texto. Mahler tomou un enfoque similar, quizais mesmo máis radical na súa Oitava Sinfonía, presentando moitas liñas da primeira parte, "Veni, Creator Spiritus", no que o escritor e crítico musical Michael Steinberg refírese como "un incrible crecemento denso de repeticións, combinacións, inversións, transposicións e confusións".[37] El fixo o mesmo co texto de Goethe na segunda parte da sinfonía, facendo dous cortes substanciais e outros trocos.[37]

Outras obras levan o uso do texto como música aínda máis lonxe. Vaughan Williams usa un coro de voces femininas sen palabras na súa Sinfonia Antartica, baseada na súa música para o filme Scott of the Antarctic, para axudar a concienciar sobre o estado de desolación da atmosfera global.[38] Mentres que o segundo e terceiro movementos da Sétima Sinfonía de Glass empregan un coro, tamén coñecida como A Toltec Symphony, o texto non contén palabras reais; o compositor afirma que no seu lugar formouno "a partir de sílabas soltas que súmanse ao contexto evocador da textura global da orquestra".[36]

Música e palabras como iguais[editar | editar a fonte]

Igor Stravinskii empregou coro e orquestra na súa Symphonie des Psaumes "en igualdade de condicións".[39]

Stravinskii dixo sobre os textos da súa Symphonie des Psaumes que "non é unha sinfonía na que teña incluído Salmos para ser cantados. Ao contrario, é o canto dos Salmos o que estou convertendo en sinfonía".[40] Esta decisión foi tanto musical como textual. O contrapunto de Stravinskii requiría varias voces musicais funcionando de xeito simultáneo, independentes melódica e ritmicamente, aínda que interdependentes harmonicamente. Debían soar moi distinto cando se escoitaran por separado, mais harmoniosas cando se escoitaran xuntas.[40][41] Para facilitar a máxima claridade posible nesta interacción de voces, Stravinskii empregou "un conxunto coral e instrumental no que os dous elementos debían estar en igualdade de condicións, ningún deles prevalecer sobre o outro".[39]

A intención de Mahler ao escribir a súa Oitava Sinfonía para unha agrupación excepcionalmente grande foi lograr un equilibrio similar entre os efectivos vocais e instrumentais. Non foi simplemente un intento de efecto grandioso,[29] aínda que polo uso que fai o compositor destes efectivos gañouse o sobrenome de "Sinfonía dos mil" polo seu axente de prensa (un sobrenome que aínda se emprega).[42] Como Stravinskii, Mahler fai un uso extensivo e estendido do contrapunto, especialmente na primeira parte, "Veni Creator Spiritus". Ao longo desta sección, segundo o escritor e crítico musical Michael Kennedy, Mahler amosa un dominio considerable na manipulación de múltiples voces melódicas independentes.[43] O musicólogo Deryck Cooke engade que Mahler manexa o seu enorme elenco "con extraordinaria claridade".[44]

Vaughan Williams tamén insistiu no equilibrio entre as palabras e a música en A Sea Symphony, escribindo nas súas notas ao programa para a obra, "Tamén é notable que a orquestra ten unha participación igual ao coro e os solistas na realización das ideas musicais".[32] O crítico musical Samuel Langford, escribindo sobre a estrea da obra para The Manchester Guardian, coincidiu co compositor, escribindo, "É o enfoque máis próximo que temos a unha verdadeira sinfonía coral, na que as voces son empregadas en todas partes tan libremente como a orquestra".[45]

A palabra determina a forma sinfónica[editar | editar a fonte]

A man with dark hair and moustache, wearing a uniform, posted over a military parade
Yevtushenko's poems about the terror under Stalin (pictured) and other Soviet abuses inspired Shostakovich to write his Thirteenth Symphony

Rachmaninoff's choral symphony The Bells reflected the four-part progression from youth to marriage, maturity, and death in Poe's poem.[14] Britten reversed the pattern for his Spring Symphony—the four sections of the symphony represent, in its composer's words, "the progress of Winter to Spring and the reawakening of the earth and life which that means.... It is in the traditional four movement shape of a symphony, but with the movements divided into shorter sections bound together by a similar mood or point of view."[13]

The gestation of Shostakovich's Thirteenth Symphony, Babi Yar, was only slightly less straightforward. He set the poem Babi Yar by Yevgeny Yevtushenko almost immediately upon reading it, initially considering it a single-movement composition.[46] Discovering three other Yevtushenko poems in the poet's collection Vzmakh ruki (A Wave of the Hand) prompted him to proceed to a full-length choral symphony, with "A Career" as the closing movement. Musicologist Francis Maes comments that Shostakovich did so by complementing Babi Yar's theme of Jewish suffering with Yevtushenko's verses about other Soviet abuses:[46] "'At the Store' is a tribute to the women who have to stand in line for hours to buy the most basic foods,... 'Fears' evokes the terror under Stalin. 'A Career' is an attack on bureaucrats and a tribute to genuine creativity".[46] Music historian Boris Schwarz adds that the poems, in the order Shostakovich places them, form a strongly dramatic opening movement, a scherzo, two slow movements and a finale.[15]

In other cases, the choice of text has led the composer to different symphonic structures. Havergal Brian allowed the form of his Fourth Symphony, subtitled "Das Siegeslied" (Psalm of Victory), to be dictated by the three-part structure of his text, Psalm 68; the setting of Verses 13–18 for soprano solo and orchestra forms a quiet interlude between two wilder, highly chromatic martial ones set for massive choral and orchestral forces.[47] Likewise, Szymanowski allowed the text by 13th-century Persian poet Rumi to dictate what Dr. Jim Samson calls the "single tripartite movement"[48] and "overall arch structure"[49] of his Third Symphony, subtitled "Song of the Night".

A palabra expande a forma sinfónica[editar | editar a fonte]

A middle-aged man with glasses and dark hair, wearing a circa-1890s dark suit
Mahler first expanded the model set by Beethoven's Ninth, then abandoned it.

A composer may also respond to a text by expanding a choral symphony beyond the normal bounds of the symphonic genre. This is evident in the unusual orchestration and stage directions Berlioz prepared for his Roméo et Juliette. This piece is actually in seven movements, and calls for an intermission after the fourth movement – the "Queen Mab Scherzo" – to remove the harps from the stage and bring on the chorus of Capulets for the funeral march that follows.[30] Berlioz biographer D. Kern Holoman observed that, "as Berlioz saw it, the work is simply Beethovenian in design, with the narrative elements overlain. Its core approaches a five-movement symphony with the choral finale and, as in the [Symphonie] Fantastique, both a scherzo and a march.... The 'extra' movements are thus the introduction with its potpourri of subsections and the descriptive tomb scene [at the end of the work]."[50]

Mahler expanded the Beethovenian model for programmatic as well as symphonic reasons in his Second Symphony, the "Resurrection", the vocal fourth movement, "Urlicht", bridging the childlike faith of the third movement with the ideological tension Mahler seeks to resolve in the finale.[33] He then abandoned this pattern for his Third Symphony, as two movements for voices and orchestra follow three purely instrumental ones before the finale returns to instruments alone.[51] Like Mahler, Havergal Brian expanded the Beethovenian model, but on a much larger scale and with far larger orchestral and choral forces, in his Symphony No. 1 "The Gothic". Written between 1919 and 1927, the symphony was inspired by Goethe's Faust and Gothic cathedral architecture.[34] The Brian First is in two parts. The first consists of three instrumental movements; the second, also in three movements and over an hour in length, is a Latin setting of the Te Deum.[34]

Sinfonías para coro sen acompañamento[editar | editar a fonte]

A few composers have written symphonies for unaccompanied chorus, in which the choir performs both vocal and instrumental functions. Granville Bantock composed three such works—Atalanta in Calydon (1911), Vanity of Vanities (1913) and A Pageant of Human Life (1913). His Atalanta, called by musicologist Herbert Antcliffe "the most important [work of the three] alike in technical experiment and in inspiration",[52] was written for a choir of at least 200, the composer specifying "'not less than 10 voices for each part,'" a work with 20 separate vocal parts.[53] Using these forces, Bantock formed groups "of different weights and colors to get something of the varied play of tints and perspective [of an orchestra]".[54] In addition, the choir is generally divided into three sections, approximating the timbres of woodwinds, brass and strings.[55] Within these divisions, Antcliffe writes,

Almost every possible means of vocal expression is employed separately or in combination with others. To hear the different parts of the choir describing in word and tone "laughter" and "tears" respectively at the same time is to realize how little the possibilities of choral singing have as yet been grasped by the ordinary conductor and composer. Such combinations are extremely effective when properly achieved, but they are very difficult to achieve.[55]

Roy Harris wrote his Symphony for Voices in 1935 for a cappella choir split into eight parts. Harris focused on harmony, rhythm and dynamics, allowing the text by Walt Whitman to dictate the choral writing.[56] "In a real sense, the human strivings so vividly portrayed in Whitman's poetry find a musical analog to the trials to which the singers are subjected", John Profitt writes both of the music's difficulty for performers and of its highly evocative quality.[56] Malcolm Williamson wrote his Symphony for Voices between 1960 and 1962, setting texts by Australian poet James McAuley. Lewis Mitchell writes that the work is not a symphony in any true sense, but rather a four-movement work preceded by an invocation for solo contralto.[57] The text is a combination of poems celebrating the Australian wilderness and visionary Christianity, its jagged lines and rhythms matched by the music.[57] Mitchell writes, "Of all his choral works, with the possible exception of the Requiem for a Tribe Brother, the Symphony is the most Australian in feeling".[58]

Intención programática[editar | editar a fonte]

An archway and gate in a large stone wall
Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem. Penderecki's Seventh Symphony, subtitled "Seven Gates of Jerusalem", is "pervaded by the number 'seven' at various levels".[59]

Some recent efforts have paid less attention to symphonic form and more to programmic intent. Hans Werner Henze wrote his 1997 Ninth Symphony in seven movements, basing the structure of the symphony on the novel The Seventh Cross by Anna Seghers. The novel recounts the flight of seven fugitives from a Nazi prison camp, the seven crosses symbolizing the seven death sentences; the ordeal of the one prisoner who makes it to freedom becomes the crux of the text.[60] Penderecki's Seventh Symphony, subtitled "Seven Gates of Jerusalem" and originally conceived as an oratorio, is not only written in seven movements but, musicologist Richard Whitehouse writes, is "pervaded by the number 'seven' at various levels."[59] An extensive system of seven-note phrases binds the work together, as well as the frequent use of seven notes repeated at a single pitch.[59] Seven chords played fortissimo bring the work to a close.[59]

Philip Glass's Fifth Symphony, completed in 1999 and subtitled "Requiem, Bardo and Nirmanakaya", is written in 12 movements to fulfill its programmatic intent. Glass writes, "My plan has been for the symphony to represent a broad spectrum of many of the world's great 'wisdom' traditions",[26] synthesizing "a vocal text that begins before the world's creation, passes through earthly life and paradise, and closes with a future dedication".[26] Glass writes that he considered the millennium at the beginning of the 21st century to be a symbolic bridge between past, present and spiritual rebirth.[26]

More recently, Glass based the philosophical and musical structure for his Seventh Symphony on the Wirrarika sacred trinity.[36] Glass wrote about the work's respective movement headings and their relation to the overall structure of the symphony, "'The Corn' represents a direct link between Mother Earth and the well-being of human beings.... 'The Sacred Root' is found in the high deserts of north and central Mexico, and is understood to be the doorway to the world of the Spirit. 'The Blue Deer' is considered the holder of the Book of Knowledge. Any man or woman who aspires to be a 'Person of Knowledge' will, through arduous training and effort, have to encounter the Blue Deer...."[36]

Palabras cambiando a intención programática[editar | editar a fonte]

Addition of a text can effectively change the programmatic intent of a composition, as with the two choral symphonies of Franz Liszt. Both the Faust and Dante symphonies were conceived as purely instrumental works and only later became choral symphonies.[61] However, while Liszt authority Humphrey Searle asserts that Liszt's later inclusion of a chorus effectively sums up Faust and makes it complete,[62] another Liszt expert, Reeves Shulstad, suggests that Liszt changed the work's dramatic focus to the point of meriting a different interpretation of the work itself.[63] According to Shulstad, "Liszt's original version of 1854 ended with a last fleeting reference to Gretchen and an ... orchestral peroration in C major, based on the most majestic of themes from the opening movement. One might say that this conclusion remains within the persona of Faust and his imagination".[63] When Liszt rethought the piece three years later, he added a "Chorus mysticus", the male chorus singing the final words from Goethe's Faust.[63] The tenor soloist, accompanied by the chorus, sings the last two lines of the text. "With the addition of the 'Chorus Mysticus' text", Shulstad writes, "the Gretchen theme has been transformed and she no longer appears as a masked Faust. With this direct association to the final scene of the drama we have escaped Faust's imaginings and are hearing another voice commenting on his striving and redemption".[64]

Two men standing on a mountain top watching rings of angels circling overhead
From Paradiso Canto 31 by Dante Alighieri. Illustration by Gustave Doré. Dante's hearing the music of Heaven from afar.

Likewise, Liszt's inclusion of a choral finale in his Dante Symphony changed both the structural and programmatic intent of the work. Liszt's intent was to follow the structure of the Divina Commedia and compose Dante in three movements—one each for the Inferno, Purgatorio and Paradiso. However, Liszt's son-in-law Richard Wagner persuaded him that no earthly composer could faithfully express the joys of Paradise. Liszt dropped the third movement but added a choral element, a Magnificat, at the end of the second.[65] This action, Searle claims, effectively destroyed the work's formal balance and left the listener, like Dante, to gaze upward at the heights of Heaven and hear its music from afar.[66] Shulstad suggests that the choral finale actually helps complete the work's programmatic trajectory from struggle to paradise.[9]

Conversely, a text can also spark the birth of a choral symphony, only for that work to become a purely instrumental one when the programmatic focus of the work changes. Shostakovich originally planned his Seventh Symphony as a single-movement choral symphony much like his Second and Third Symphonies. Shostakovich reportedly intended to set a text for the Seventh from the Ninth Psalm, on the theme of vengeance for the shedding of innocent blood.[67] In doing this he was influenced by Stravinsky; he had been deeply impressed with the latter's Symphony of Psalms, which he wanted to emulate in this work.[68] While the Ninth Psalm's theme conveyed Shostakovich's outrage over Stalin's oppression,[69] a public performance of a work with such a text would have been impossible before the German invasion. Hitler's aggression made the performance of such a work feasible, at least in theory; the reference to "blood" could then be associated at least officially with Hitler.[69] With Stalin appealing to the Soviets' patriotic and religious sentiments, the authorities were no longer suppressing Orthodox themes or images.[70] Nevertheless, Shostakovich eventually realized that the work encompassed far more than this symbology.[71] He expanded the symphony to the traditional four movements and made it purely instrumental.[71]

Suplantar texto sen palabras[editar | editar a fonte]

While Berlioz allowed the programmatic aspects of his text to shape the symphonic form of Roméo and to guide its content, he also showed how an orchestra could supplant such a text wordlessly to further illustrate it.[31] He wrote in his preface to Roméo:

A painting of a woman dressed in clothing circa 1600 standing on a balcony, being kissed by a man who has climbed up to her from outside the building
Berlioz allowed text to dictate symphonic form in Roméo but allowed the music to supplant the text wordlessly.

If, in the famous garden and cemetery scenes the dialogue of the two lovers, Juliet's asides, and Romeo's passionate outbursts are not sung, if the duets of love and despair are given to the orchestra, the reasons are numerous and easy to comprehend. First, and this alone would be sufficient, it is a symphony and not an opera. Second, since duets of this nature have been handled vocally a thousand times by the greatest masters, it was wise as well as unusual to attempt another means of expression. It is also because the very sublimity of this love made its depiction so dangerous for the musician that he had to give his imagination a latitude that the positive sense of the sung words would not have given him, resorting instead to instrumental language, which is richer, more varied, less precise, and by its very indefiniteness incomparably more powerful in such a case.[2]

As a manifesto, this paragraph became significant for the amalgamation of symphonic and dramatic elements in the same musical composition.[72] Musicologist Hugh MacDonald writes that as Berlioz kept the idea of symphonic construction closely in mind, he allowed the orchestra to express the majority of the drama in instrumental music and set expository and narrative sections in words.[31] Fellow musicologist Nicholas Temperley suggests that, in Roméo, Berlioz created a model for how a dramatic text could guide the structure of a choral symphony without circumventing that work from being recognizably a symphony.[73] In this sense, musicologist Mark Evans Bonds writes, the symphonies of Liszt and Mahler owe a debt of influence to Berlioz.[5]

More recently, Alfred Schnittke allowed the programmatic aspects of his texts to dictate the course of both his choral symphonies even when no words were being sung. Schnittke's six-movement Second Symphony, following the Ordinary of the Mass of the Roman Catholic Church,[74] works programmatically on two levels simultaneously. While soloists and chorus briefly perform the mass, set to chorales taken from the Gradual,[75] the orchestra provides an extended running commentary that can continue much longer than the section of the mass being performed. Sometimes the commentary follows a particular chorale but more often is freer and wider ranging in style.[75] Despite the resulting stylistic disparity, biographer Alexander Ivashkin comments, "musically almost all these sections blend the choral [sic] tune and subsequent extensive orchestral 'commentary.'"[75] The work becomes what Schnittke called an "Invisible Mass",[76] and Ivashkin termed "a symphony against a chorale backdrop".[75]

The program in Schnittke's Fourth Symphony, reflecting the composer's own religious dilemma at the time it was written,[77] is more complex in execution, with the majority of it expressed wordlessly. In the 22 variations that make up the symphony's single movement,[a 1] Schnittke enacts the 15 traditional Mysteries of the Rosary, which highlight important moments in the life of Christ.[78][79] As he did in the Second Symphony, Schnittke simultaneously gives a detailed musical commentary on what is being portrayed.[78] Schnittke does this while using church music from the Catholic, Protestant, Jewish and Orthodox faiths, the orchestral texture becoming extremely dense from the many musical strands progressing at the same time.[74][77] A tenor and a countertenor also sing wordlessly at two points in the symphony. The composition saves words for a finale that uses all four types of church music contrapuntally[80] as a four-part choir sings the Ave Maria.[77] The choir can choose whether to sing the Ave Maria in Russian or Latin.[77] The programmatic intent of using these different types of music, Ivashkin writes, is an insistence by the composer "on the idea ... of the unity of humanity, a synthesis and harmony among various manifestations of belief".[78]

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

  1. A Schlacht-Sinfonie de Peter von Winter tamén emprega un coro final. Escrita en 1814, precede á Novena de Beethoven unha década. Con todo, como é unha obra ocasional escrita nun único movemento, a Schlacht-Sinfonie "permanece fóra da tradición xenérica da sinfonía".[3]
Referencias
  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 Kennedy, Oxford Dictionary, 144.
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 "Avant-Propos de l'auteur", Reiter-Biedermann's vocal score (Winterthur, 1858), p. 1. As quoted in Holoman, 262.
  3. Bonds, New Grove (2001), 24:836.
  4. Kennedy, Vaughan Williams, 444.
  5. 5,0 5,1 5,2 5,3 5,4 5,5 Bonds, New Grove (2001), 24:837.
  6. 6,0 6,1 6,2 Bonds, New Grove (2001), 24:835.
  7. 7,0 7,1 Larue e Wolf, New Grove (2000), 24:812
  8. As cited in Bonds, New Grove (2000), 24:837.
  9. 9,0 9,1 9,2 Bonds, New Grove (2001), 24:838.
  10. 10,0 10,1 Todd, New Grove (2001), 16:403.
  11. Bonds, New Grove (2001), 24:839.
  12. Franklin, New Grove (2001), 15:622.
  13. 13,0 13,1 13,2 Britten, Benjamin, "A Note on the Spring Symphony", Music Survey, Spring 1950. As quoted in White, Britten, 62.
  14. 14,0 14,1 14,2 14,3 Steinberg, Choral Masterworks, 241–242.
  15. 15,0 15,1 15,2 Schwarz, New Grove (1980), 17:270.
  16. 16,0 16,1 Cox, The Symphony, 2:115.
  17. 17,0 17,1 MacDonald, notes for Naxos 8.570308, 3.
  18. 18,0 18,1 Samson, 122, 126.
  19. 19,0 19,1 Weitzman, notes for Chandos 9463, 5.
  20. Kosz, notes for Naxos 8.555375, 2.
  21. Steinberg, Choral Masterworks, 265.
  22. Palmer, New Grove (1980), 12:306.
  23. Penguin, 774.
  24. Whitehouse, notes to Naxos 8.557766 2.
  25. Author unknown, notes for Sony Classical SK 63368, 4.
  26. 26,0 26,1 26,2 26,3 Glass, Philip (1999). "Notes by Philip Glass on his Fifth Symphony.". Nonesuch 79618-2. Consultado o 2009-04-05. 
  27. Bonds, New Grove (2001), 24:833.
  28. 28,0 28,1 Steinberg, Choral Masterworks, 268; Kennedy, Vaughan Williams, 444.
  29. 29,0 29,1 Kennedy, Mahler, 151.
  30. 30,0 30,1 30,2 Holoman, 262–263.
  31. 31,0 31,1 31,2 MacDonald, New Grove (1980), 2:596.
  32. 32,0 32,1 32,2 Kennedy, Vaughan Williams, 444
  33. 33,0 33,1 Franklin, New Grove (2001), 15:618.
  34. 34,0 34,1 34,2 MacDonald, New Grove (2001), 4:341.
  35. 35,0 35,1 Ottaway, Vaughan Williams Symphonies, 17.
  36. 36,0 36,1 36,2 36,3 Freed, Richard (January 2005). "Symphony No. 7—A Toltec Symphony". Kennedy Center program notes. Consultado o 2009-04-05. .
  37. 37,0 37,1 Steinberg, The Symphony, 335.
  38. Ottaway, 50, 53.
  39. 39,0 39,1 Stravinsky, Chronicles, as cited in White, Stravinsky, 321.
  40. 40,0 40,1 White, Stravinsky, 321.
  41. Sachs and Dahlhaus, New Grove (2001), 6:564–569.
  42. Kennedy, Mahler, 100.
  43. Kennedy, Mahler, 152.
  44. Cooke, 93.
  45. Cited in Kennedy, Vaughan Williams, 99.
  46. 46,0 46,1 46,2 Maes, 366.
  47. Truscott, The Symphony, 2:143–144; MacDonald, notes for Naxos 8.570308, 3.
  48. Samson, 122.
  49. Samson, 126.
  50. Holoman, 263.
  51. Mitchell, New Grove, 11:515.
  52. Antcliffe, 337.
  53. Cited in McVeagh, 5.
  54. Musicologist Ernest Newman, cited in McVeagh, 6.
  55. 55,0 55,1 Antcliffe, 338.
  56. 56,0 56,1 Profitt, notes for Albany TROY 164.
  57. 57,0 57,1 Mitchell, 2.
  58. Mitchell, 2–3.
  59. 59,0 59,1 59,2 59,3 Whitehouse, notes to Naxos 8.557766, 2.
  60. Schluren, notes to EMI 56513, 13.
  61. Shulstad, 217, 219.
  62. Searle, The Symphony, 1:269.
  63. 63,0 63,1 63,2 Shulstad, 217.
  64. Shulstad, 219.
  65. Shulstad, 220.
  66. Searle, "Liszt, Franz", New Grove, 11:45.
  67. Volkov, Testimony, 184; Arnshtam interview with Sofiya Khentova in Khentova, In Shostakovich's World (Moscow, 1996), 234, as quoted in Wilson, 171–172.
  68. Volkov, Shostakovich and Stalin, 175.
  69. 69,0 69,1 Volkov, St. Petersburg, 427.
  70. Volkov, St. Petersburg, 427–428.
  71. 71,0 71,1 Steinberg, The Symphony, 557.
  72. Holoman, 261.
  73. Temperley, New Grove (1980), 18:460.
  74. 74,0 74,1 Moody, New Grove (2001), 22:566.
  75. 75,0 75,1 75,2 75,3 Ivashkin, notes for Chandos 9519, 5.
  76. As cited in Ivanskin, notes to Chandos 9519, 5.
  77. 77,0 77,1 77,2 77,3 Ivashkin, Schnittke, 161.
  78. 78,0 78,1 78,2 Ivashkin, Schnittke, 165.
  79. Weitzman, notes for Chandos 9463, 6.
  80. Weitzman, notes for Chandos 9463, 7.

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