Gustav Mahler

Na Galipedia, a Wikipedia en galego.
Este é un dos 1000 artigos que toda Wikipedia debería ter.
Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler 1909.jpg
Gustav Mahler en 1909.
Nome completo Gustav Mahler
Data de nacemento 7 de xullo de 1860
Lugar de nacemento Kaliště
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Imperio austríaco
Data de falecemento 18 de maio de 1911 (50 anos)
Lugar de falecemento Viena
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg Imperio Austrohúngaro
Parella/s Alma Marie Schindler
Fillo/s Marie e Anna
Mahler-signature.svg

Gustav Mahler, nado en Kaliště, Bohemia (actualmente República Checa) o 7 de xullo de 1860 e finado en Viena o 18 de maio de 1911, foi un compositor e director de orquestra bohemio-austríaco. As súas composicións atópanse entre as obras máis importantes do Posromanticismo.

Nas primeiras décadas do século XX, Gustav Mahler era considerado un dos máis importantes directores de orquestra e de ópera do seu momento. Logo de graduarse no Conservatorio de Viena en 1878, foi sucesivamente director de varias orquestras cada vez máis importantes en diversos teatros de ópera europeos, chegando en 1897 á que daquela era considerada a máis notable, a dirección da Ópera da Corte de Viena (Hofoper). Durante os seus 10 anos na capital austríaca, Mahler —xudeu converso ao catolicismo para asegurarse o seu posto— sufriu a oposición e hostilidade da prensa antisemita. Porén, grazas ás súas innovadoras producións e á insistencia nos máis altos niveis de representación gañouse o recoñecemento como un dos máis grandes directores de ópera, particularmente como intérprete das óperas de Richard Wagner e Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Posteriormente, foi director da Metropolitan Opera e da New York Philharmonic Orchestra.

Como compositor centrou os seus esforzos na forma sinfónica e no Lied. A Segunda, Terceira, Cuarta e Oitava sinfonías e Das Lied von der Erde (A canción da Terra) conxugaron nas súas partituras ambos xéneros. El mesmo advertía que compoñer unha sinfonía era “construír un mundo con todos os medios posibles”, polo que os seus traballos neste campo se caracterizaban por unha heteroxeneidade moi ampla. Introduciu elementos de diferente procedencia como melodías folclóricas, marchas, fanfarras militares, mediante un uso persoal do acorde, entrecortando ou alongando inusitadamente as liñas melódicas, acoplados ou xustapostos no interior do marco formal que absorbeu da tradición clásica vienesa. As súas obras sinfónicas adquiriron excesivas proporcións e incluíu harmonías disonantes que superan o cromatismo empregado por Wagner na súa ópera Tristan und Isolde. O aspecto de desorde que resultaba, co esforzo extra que demandaba recoñecer algunha formalidade “clásica” na súa estrutura, xerou a incomprensión da súa música, atraendo unha hostilidade case xeral, pese ao apoio dunha minoría entusiasta entre a que se contaban os membros da Segunda Escola de Viena, que o tiñan polo seu máis directo precursor.

Entre as súas obras, cabe sinalar as súas nove sinfonías rematadas (dez, se se inclúen os bosquexos da Décima) e varios ciclos de cancións o lieder. As súas principais coleccións de cancións son: Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (Cancións dun compañeiro de viaxe); o ciclo  Des Knaben Wunderhorn (O corno máxico da xuventude), baseado nunha recompilación de cantos folclóricos alemáns; Kindertotenlieder (Cancións aos nenos mortos) e as cancións Rückert-Lieder, baseándose en ambos casos nos textos do poeta alemán Friedrich Rückert; tamén, a renovadora síntese de sinfonía-ciclo de cancións Das Lied von der Erde, con letra de poemas traducidos do chinés ao alemán.

A revitalización de Mahler, ao igual que a de Anton Bruckner, foi lenta e viuse atrasada a causa da súa gran orixinalidade e do auxe do nazismo en Alemaña e Austria , pois a súa condición de xudeu catalogou á súa obra como “dexenerada” e “moderna”. O mesmo sucedeu con outros compositores, caídos en desgraza no Terceiro Reich. Só ao final da Segunda Guerra Mundial e pola decidida labor de directores como Bruno Walter, Otto Klemperer e, máis tarde, Bernard Haitink ou Leonard Bernstein, a súa música comezou a interpretarse con máis frecuencia no repertorio das grandes orquestras, encontrándose entre os compositores máis destacados na historia da música.

Traxectoria[editar | editar a fonte]

Primeiros anos[editar | editar a fonte]

Antecedentes familiares[editar | editar a fonte]

Jihlava (alemán: Iglau) onde creceu Mahler.

A familia de Mahler proviña do leste de Bohemia e era de orixe humilde; a avoa do compositor fora unha vendedora ambulante.[1] Bohemia era daquela parte do Imperio Austríaco; a familia pertencía á minoría xermanoparlante entre os bohemios, e pertencían á comunidade xudía. Con estes antecedentes o futuro do compositor desenvolveuse pronto nun permanente sentido de exilio, "sempre un intruso, nunca ben recibido."[2]

Bernhard Mahler, fillo dun vendedor ambulante e pai do compositor, converteuse nun membro da pequena burguesía ao converterse en cocheiro e máis tarde en taberneiro.[3] Mercou unha modesta casa na vila de Kalischt (Kaliště), a medio camiño entre Praga en Bohemia e Brno en Moravia, no centro xeográfico da actual República Checa. En 1857 Bernhard casou con Marie Herrmann, a filla dun rico comerciante e fabricante de xabrón.[4] Marie deu a luz ao primeiro dos 14 fillos da parella, Isidor, que morreu sendo un neno. Dous anos despois, o 7 de xullo de 1860, naceu o segundo dos seus fillos, Gustav.Modelo:HarvnpBlaukopf

Infancia[editar | editar a fonte]

Gustav Mahler, aos seis anos.

En outubro de 1860, Bernhard Mahler trasladouse xunto coa súa muller e o seu fillo, Gustav, á cidade de Iglau (Jihlava),[5] 25 km ao sueste (Moravia), onde construíu unha destilería e taberna.[6] A familia prosperou rapidamente, mais dos doce fillos (só tres foron nenas) que naceron cando a familia vivía en Iglau, só seis soberviviron á infancia.[5] Iglau era daquela unha próspera cidade comercial de 20.000 habitantes onde Gustava introduciuse na música a través de cancións da rúa, música de baile, melodías populares, e as chamadas de trompeta e marchas da banda militar local.[7] Todos estes elementos puideron contribuír máis tarde ao seu vocabulario musical maduro.[3]

Cando tiña catro anos, Gustav descubriu o piano dos seus avós e comezou a tocalo inmediatamente.[8] Desenvolveu as súas habilidades na interpretación o suficiente para ser considerado un Wunderkind (neno prodixio) local e deu o seu primeiro recital público no teatro da cidade cando tiña 10 anos.[3][6] Aínda que a Gustav gustáballe facer música, os seus informes do Gymnasium de Iglau mostrábano distraído e pouco confiable no seu traballo académico.[8] En 1871, coa esperanza de mellorar os resultados do seu fillo, seu pai mandouno ao Novo Gymnasium da Cidade de Praga, mais Gustav non era feliz alí e pronto regresou a Iglau.[6] O 13 de abril de 1875 sufriu unha amarga perda persoal cando o seu irmán pequeno Ernst (nado o 18 de marzo de 1862) morreu logo dunha longa enfermidade. Mahler tratou de expresar os seus sentimentos coa música: coa axuda dun amigo, Josef Steiner, comezou a traballar nunha ópera, Herzog Ernst von Schwaben ("O duque Ernest de Suabia") en homenaxe ao seu defunto irmán. Non sobreviviu nada da música nin do libreto.[8]

Anos de estudante[editar | editar a fonte]

Bernhard Mahler supported his son's ambitions for a music career, and agreed that the boy should try for a place at the Vienna Conservatory.[9] The young Mahler was auditioned by the renowned pianist Julius Epstein, and accepted for 1875–76.[6] He made good progress in his piano studies with Epstein and won prizes at the end of each of his first two years. For his final year, 1877–78, he concentrated on composition and harmony under Robert Fuchs and Franz Krenn.[10][11] Few of Mahler's student compositions have survived; most were abandoned when he became dissatisfied with them. He destroyed a symphonic movement prepared for an end-of-term competition, after its scornful rejection by the autocratic director Joseph Hellmesberger on the grounds of copying errors.[12] Mahler may have gained his first conducting experience with the Conservatory's student orchestra, in rehearsals and performances, although it appears that his main role in this orchestra was as a percussionist.[13]

Mahler was influenced by Richard Wagner during his student days, and later became a leading interpreter of Wagner's operas.

Among Mahler's fellow students at the Conservatory was the future song composer Hugo Wolf, with whom he formed a close friendship. Wolf was unable to submit to the strict disciplines of the Conservatory and was expelled. Mahler, while sometimes rebellious, avoided the same fate only by writing a penitent letter to Hellmesberger.[12] He attended occasional lectures by Anton Bruckner and, though never formally his pupil, was influenced by him. On 16 December 1877, he attended the disastrous premiere of Bruckner's Third Symphony, at which the composer was shouted down, and most of the audience walked out. Mahler and other sympathetic students later prepared a piano version of the symphony, which they presented to Bruckner.[13] Along with many music students of his generation, Mahler fell under the spell of Richard Wagner, though his chief interest was the sound of the music rather than the staging. It is not known whether he saw any of Wagner's operas during his student years.[14]

Mahler left the Conservatory in 1878 with a diploma but without the silver medal given for outstanding achievement.[15] He then enrolled in the University of Vienna (he had, at Bernhard's insistence, sat and with difficulty passed the "matura," or entrance examination) and followed courses which reflected his developing interests in literature and philosophy.[6] After leaving the University in 1879, Mahler made some money as a piano teacher, continued to compose, and in 1880 finished a dramatic cantata, Das klagende Lied ("The Song of Lamentation"). This, his first substantial composition, shows traces of Wagnerian and Brucknerian influences, yet includes many musical elements which musicologist Deryck Cooke describes as "pure Mahler."[16] Its first performance was delayed until 1901, when it was presented in a revised, shortened form.[17]

Mahler developed interests in German philosophy, and was introduced by his friend Siegfried Lipiner to the works of Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gustav Fechner and Hermann Lotze. These thinkers continued to influence Mahler and his music long after his student days were over. Mahler's biographer Jonathan Carr says that the composer's head was "not only full of the sound of Bohemian bands, trumpet calls and marches, Bruckner chorales and Schubert sonatas. It was also throbbing with the problems of philosophy and metaphysics he had thrashed out, above all, with Lipiner."[18]

Early conducting career 1880–88[editar | editar a fonte]

First appointments[editar | editar a fonte]

From June to August of 1880, Mahler took his first professional conducting job, in a small wooden theatre in the spa town of Bad Hall, south of Linz.[15] The repertory was exclusively operetta; it was, in Carr's words "a dismal little job," which Mahler accepted only after Julius Epstein told him he would soon work his way up.[18] In 1881, he was engaged for six months (September to April) at the Landestheater in Laibach (now Ljubljana, in Slovenia), where the small but resourceful company was prepared to attempt more ambitious works. Here, Mahler conducted his first full-scale opera, Verdi's Il trovatore, one of 10 operas and a number of operattas that he presented during his time in Laibach.[19] After completing this engagement, Mahler returned to Vienna and worked part-time as chorus-master at the Vienna Carltheater.[20]

From the beginning of January 1883, Mahler became conductor at the Royal Municipal Theatre in Olmütz (now Olomouc) in Moravia.[19] He later wrote: "From the moment I crossed the threshold of the Olmütz theatre I felt like one awaiting the wrath of God."[21] Despite poor relations with the orchestra, Mahler brought nine (13 times) operas to the theatre, including the new Bizet's Carmen, and won over the press that had initially been sceptical to him.[21] After a week's trial at the Royal Theatre in the Hessian town of Kassel, Mahler became the theatre's "Musical and Choral Director" from August 1883.[20] The title concealed the reality that Mahler was subordinate to the theatre's Kapellmeister, Wilhelm Treiber, who disliked him (and vice-versa) and set out to make his life miserable.[22] Despite the unpleasant atmosphere, Mahler had moments of success at Kassel. He directed a performance of his favourite opera, Weber's Der Freischütz,[23] and 25 other operas. on 23 June 1884, he conducted his own incidental music to Joseph Victor von Scheffel's play Der Trompeter von Säckingen ("The Trumpeter of Säckingen"), the first professional public performance of a Mahler work.[n 1] An ardent, but ultimately unfulfilled, love affair with soprano Johanna Richter led Mahler to write a series of love poems which became the text of his song cycle Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen ("Songs of a Wayfarer").[22]

In January 1884, the distinguished conductor Hans von Bülow brought the Meiningen Court Orchestra to Kassel and gave two concerts. Hoping to escape from his job in the theatre, Mahler unsuccessfully sought a post as Bülow's permanent assistant. However, in the following year his efforts to find new employment resulted in a six-year contract with the prestigious Leipzig Opera, to begin in August 1886. Unwilling to remain in Kassel for another year, Mahler resigned on 22 June 1885, and applied for, and through good fortune was offered a standby appointment as conductor at the Royal Deutsches Landestheater in Prague by the theatre's newly appointed director, the famous Angelo Neumann.[24]

Prague and Leipzig[editar | editar a fonte]

 Light-coloured two-storey stone building with an ornamental ledge below the roof. There are rows of five windows at ground level and the floor above, with a balcony at the middle upper window.
Gustav Mahler's home in Leipzig, where he composed his Symphony No. 1

In Prague, the emergence of Czech National Revival had increased the popularity and importance of the new Czech National Theatre, and had led to a downturn in the Royal Landstheater fortunes. Mahler's task was to help arrest this decline by offering high-quality productions of German opera.[25] He enjoyed early success presenting works by Mozart and Wagner, composers with whom he would be particularly associated for the rest of his career,[23] but his individualistic and increasingly autocratic conducting style led to friction, and a falling out with his more experienced fellow-conductor, Ludwig Slansky.[25] During his 12 months in Prague he conducted 68 performances of 14 operas (12 titles were new in his repertory), and he also performed Beethoven's Ninth for the first time in his life. By the end of the season, in July 1886, Mahler left Prague to take up his post at the Neues Stadttheater in Leipzig, where rivalry with his senior colleague Arthur Nikisch almost began at once. This conflict was primarily over how the two should share conducting duties for the theatre's new production of Wagner's Ring cycle. Nikisch's illness, from February to April 1887, meant that Mahler took charge of the whole cycle (except Götterdämmerung), and scored a resounding public success. This did not, however, win him popularity with the orchestra, who resented his dictatorial manner and heavy rehearsal schedules.[25][26]

In Leipzig, Mahler befriended Captain Carl von Weber (1849–1897), grandson of the composer, and agreed to prepare a performing version of Carl Maria von Weber's unfinished opera Die drei Pintos ("The Three Pintos"). Mahler transcribed and orchestrated the existing musical sketches, used parts of other Weber works, and added some composition of his own.[27] The premiere at the Stadttheater, on 20 January 1888, was an important occasion at which several heads of various German opera houses were present. (The famous Russian composer Tchaikovsky was present at the 3rd performance on 29 January.) [25] . The work was well-received; its success did much to raise Mahler's public profile, and brought him financial rewards.[27] Mahler's involvement with the Weber family was complicated by Mahler's alleged romantic attachment to Carl von Weber's wife Marion Mathilde (1857–1931) which, though intense on both sides (so it was rumoured for example by English composer Ethel Smyth, but it is very unlikely), ultimately came to nothing. In February and March 1888 Mahler sketched and completed his First Symphony, then in five movements. At around the same time Mahler discovered the German folk-poem collection Des Knaben Wunderhorn ("The Youth's Magic Horn"), which would dominate much of his compositional output for the following 12 years.[25][n 2]

On 17 May 1888, Mahler suddenly resigned his Leipzig position after a dispute with the Stadttheater's chief stage manager, Albert Goldberg.[29] However, Mahler had secretly been invited by Angelo Neumann in Prague (and accepted the offer) to conduct the premiere there of "his" Die drei Pintos, and later also a production of Peter Cornelius's Der Barbier von Bagdad. This short stay (July-September) ended unhappily, with Mahler's dismissal following his outburst during a rehearsal. However, through the efforts of an old Viennese friend, Guido Adler, and cellist David Popper, Mahler's name went forward as a potential director of the Royal Hungarian Opera in Budapest. He was interviewed, made a good impression, and was offered and accepted (with some reluctance) the post from 1 October 1888.[30]

Apprentice composer[editar | editar a fonte]

 Young dark-haired man wearing a loose necktie with a white shirt and a dark jacket
Gustav Mahler at the time of his First Symphony

In the early years of Mahler's conducting career, composing was a spare time activity. Between his Laibach and Olmütz appointments he worked on settings of verses by Richard Leander and Tirso de Molina, later collected as Volume I of Lieder und Gesänge ("Songs and Airs").[31] Mahler's first orchestral song cycle, Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, composed at Kassel, was based on his own verses, although the first poem, "Wenn mein Schatz Hochzeit macht" ("When my love becomes a bride") closely follows the text of a Wunderhorn poem.[28] The melodies for the second and fourth songs of the cycle were incorporated into the First Symphony, which Mahler finished in 1888, at the height of his relationship with Marion von Weber. The intensity of Mahler's feelings are reflected in the music, which originally was written as a five-movement symphonic poem with a descriptive programme. One of these movements, the "Blumine," later discarded, was based on a passage from his earlier work Der Trompeter von Säckingen.[25][27] After completing the symphony, Mahler composed a 20-minute symphonic poem, Totenfeier "Funeral Rites", which later became the first movement of his Second Symphony.[32]

There has been frequent speculation about lost or destroyed works from Mahler's early years.[33] The Dutch conductor Willem Mengelberg believed that the First Symphony was too mature to be a first symphonic work, and must have had predecessors. In 1938, Mengelberg revealed the existence of the so-called "Dresden archive," a series of manuscripts in the possession of the widowed Marion von Weber.[34] According to the Mahler historian Donald Mitchell, it was highly likely that important Mahler manuscripts of early symphonic works had been held in Dresden;[34] this archive, if it existed, was almost certainly destroyed in the bombing of Dresden in 1945.[27]

Budapest and Hamburg, 1888–97[editar | editar a fonte]

Royal Opera, Budapest[editar | editar a fonte]

On arriving in Budapest in October 1888, Mahler encountered a cultural conflict between conservative Hungarian nationalists who favoured a policy of Magyarisation, and progressives who wanted to maintain and develop the country's Austro-German cultural traditions. In the opera house a dominant conservative caucus, led by the music director Sándor Erkel, had maintained a limited repertory of historical and folklore opera. By the time that Mahler began his duties, the progressive camp had gained ascendancy following the appointment of the liberal-minded Ferenc von Beniczky as intendant.[35] Aware of the delicate situation, Mahler moved cautiously; he delayed his first appearance on the conductor's stand until January 1889, when he conducted Hungarian-language performances of Das Rheingold and Die Walküre to initial public acclaim.[36] However, his early successes faded when plans to stage the remainder of the Ring cycle and other German operas were frustrated by a renascent conservative faction which favoured a more traditional "Hungarian" programme.[36] In search of non-German operas to extend the repertory, Mahler visited in spring 1890 Italy where among the works he discovered was Pietro Mascagni's recent sensation Cavalleria rusticana (Budapest premiere on 26 December 1890).[35]

On 18 February 1889, Bernhard Mahler died; this was followed later in the year by the deaths both of Mahler's sister Leopoldine (27 September) and his mother (11 October).[35] From October 1889 Mahler took charge of his four younger brothers and sisters (Alois, Otto, Justine, and Emma). They were installed in a rented flat in Vienna. Mahler himself suffered poor health, with attacks of haemorrhoids and migraine and a recurrent septic throat.[37] Shortly after these family and health setbacks the premiere of the First Symphony, in Budapest on 20 November 1889, was a disappointment. The critic August Beer's lengthy newspaper review indicates that enthusiasm after the early movements degenerated into "audible opposition" after the Finale.[38] Mahler was particularly distressed by the negative comments from his Vienna Conservatory contemporary, Viktor von Herzfeld, who had remarked that Mahler, like many conductors before him, had proved not to be a composer.[35][39]

In 1891, Hungary's move to the political right was reflected in the opera house when Beniczky on 1 February was replaced as intendant by Count Géza Zichy, a conservative aristocrat determined to assume artistic control over Mahler's head.[35] However, Mahler had foreseen that and had secretly been negotiating with Bernhard Pollini, the director of the Stadttheater Hamburg since summer and autumn of 1890, and a contract was finally signed in secrecy on 15 January 1891. Mahler more or less "forced" himself to be sacked from his Budapest post, and he succeeded on 14 March 1891. By his departure he received a large sum of indemnity.[40] One of his final Budapest triumph was a performance of Don Giovanni (16. Sept. 1890) which won him praise from Brahms, who was present at the performances on 16 December 1890.[41] During his Budapest years Mahler's compositional output had been limited to a few songs from the Wunderhorn song settings that became Volumes II and III of Lieder und Gesänge, and amendments to the First Symphony.[36]

Stadttheater Hamburg[editar | editar a fonte]

 A small lakeside building showing a single window in a white wall below a sloping red roof
The Komponierhäuschen (composition hut) in Steinbach am Attersee

Mahler's Hamburg post was as chief conductor, subordinate to the director, Bernhard Pohl (known as Pollini) who retained overall artistic control. Pollini was prepared to give Mahler considerable leeway if the conductor could provide commercial as well as artistic success. This Mahler did in his first season, when he conducted Wagner's Tristan und Isolde for the first time and gave acclaimed performances of the same composer's Tannhäuser and Siegfried.[42] Another triumph was the German premiere of Tchaikovsky's Eugene Onegin, in the presence of the composer, who called Mahler's conducting "astounding," and later asserted in a letter that he believed Mahler was "positively a genius."[43] Mahler's demanding rehearsal schedules led to predictable resentment from the singers and orchestra with whom, according to music writer Peter Franklin, the conductor "inspired hatred and respect in almost equal measure."[42] He found support, however, from Hans von Bülow, who was in Hamburg as director of the city's subscription concerts. Bülow, who had spurned Mahler's approaches in Kassel, had come to admire the younger man's conducting style, and on Bülow's death in 1894 Mahler took over the direction of the concerts.[36]

 A balding man with a pointed beard, in formal dress clothes and holding a cigar in his left hand
Hans von Bülow, an admirer of Mahler's conducting

In the summer of 1892 Mahler took the Hamburg singers to London to participate in a eight-week season of German opera—his only visit to Britain. His conducting of Tristan enthralled the young composer Ralph Vaughan Williams, who "staggered home in a daze and could not sleep for two nights."[44] However, Mahler refused further such invitations as he was anxious to reserve his summers for composing.[36] In 1893 he acquired a retreat at Steinbach, on the banks of Lake Attersee in Upper Austria, and established a pattern that persisted for the rest of his life; summers would henceforth be dedicated to composition, at Steinbach or its successor retreats. Now firmly under the influence of the Wunderhorn folk-poem collection, Mahler produced a stream of song settings at Steinbach, and composed his Second and Third Symphonies there.[42]

Performances of Mahler works were still comparatively rare (he had not composed very much). On 27 October 1893, at Hamburg's Konzerthaus Ludwig, Mahler conducted a revised version of his First Symphony; still in its original five-movement form, it was presented as a Tondichtung (tone poem) under the descriptive name "Titan".[42][45] This concert also introduced six recent Wunderhorn settings. Mahler achieved his first relative success as a composer when the Second Symphony was well-received on its premiere in Berlin, under his own baton, on 13 December 1895. Mahler's conducting assistant Bruno Walter, who was present, said that "one may date [Mahler's] rise to fame as a composer from that day."[46] That same year Mahler's private life had been disrupted by the suicide of his younger brother Otto[47] on 6 February.

At the Stadttheater Mahler's repertory consisted of 66 operas of which 36 titles were new to him. During his six years in Hamburg he conducted 744 performances, amongst other he introduced: Verdi's Falstaff, Humperdinck's Hänsel und Gretel, and works by Smetana.[36] However, he was forced to resign his post with the subscription concerts after poor financial returns and an ill-received interpretation of his re-scored Beethoven's Ninth Symphony.[42] Already at an early age Mahler had made it clear that his ultimate goal was an appointment in Vienna, and from 1895 onward was manoeuvring, with the help of influential friends, to secure the directorship of the Vienna Hofoper.[48] He overcame the bar that existed against the appointment of a Jew to this post by what may have been a pragmatic conversion to Roman Catholicism in February 1897.[49] Despite this event, Mahler has been described as a lifelong agnostic.[50]

Vienna, 1897–1907[editar | editar a fonte]

Hofoper director[editar | editar a fonte]

Modelo:Further information

 An imposing, heavily ornamented building in a city location, with numerous horsedrawn vehicles and pedestrians passing. There are visible tramlines in the street.
The Vienna Hofoper (now Staatsoper), pictured in 1898 during Mahler's conductorship

As he waited for the Emperor's confirmation of his directorship, Mahler shared duties as a resident conductor with Joseph Hellmesberger Jr. (son of the former conservatory director) and Hans Richter, an internationally renowned interpreter of Wagner and the conductor of the original Ring cycle at Bayreuth in 1876.[51] Director Wilhelm Jahn had not consulted Richter about Mahler's appointment; Mahler, sensitive to the situation, wrote Richter a complimentary letter expressing unswerving admiration for the older conductor. Subsequently, the two were rarely in agreement, but kept their divisions private.[52]

Vienna, the imperial Habsburg capital, had recently elected an anti-Semitic conservative mayor, Karl Lueger, who had once proclaimed: "I myself decide who is a Jew and who isn't."[53] In such a volatile political atmosphere Mahler needed an early demonstration of his German cultural credentials. He made his initial mark in May 1897 with much-praised performances of Wagner's Lohengrin and Mozart's Die Zauberflöte.[54] Shortly after the Zauberflöte triumph, Mahler was forced to take sick leave for several weeks, during which he was nursed by his sister Justine and his long-time companion, the viola player Natalie Bauer-Lechner.[55] Mahler returned to Vienna in late July to prepare for Vienna's first uncut version of the Ring cycle. This performance took place on 24–27 August, attracting critical praise and public enthusiasm. Mahler's friend Hugo Wolf told Bauer-Lechner that "for the first time I have heard the Ring as I have always dreamed of hearing it while reading the score."[56]

 A series of line drawings of a man in exaggerated poses, holding a conductor's baton
Mahler's conducting style, 1901, caricatured in the humor magazine Fliegende Blätter

On 8 October Mahler was formally appointed to succeed Jahn as the Hofoper's director.[57][n 3] His first production in his new office was Smetana's Czech nationalist opera Dalibor, with a reconstituted finale that left the hero Dalibor alive. This production caused anger among the more extreme Viennese German nationalists, who accused Mahler of "fraternising with the anti-dynastic, inferior Czech nation."[58] The Austrian author Stefan Zweig, in his memoirs The World of Yesterday (1942), described Mahler's appointment as an example of the Viennese public's general distrust of young artists: "Once, when an amazing exception occurred and Gustav Mahler was named director of the Court Opera at thirty-eight years old, a frightened murmur and astonishment ran through Vienna, because someone had entrusted the highest institute of art to 'such a young person' ... This suspicion—that all young people were 'not very reliable'—ran through all circles at that time."[59] Zweig also wrote that "to have seen Gustav Mahler on the street [in Vienna] was an event that one would proudly report to his comrades the next morning as it if were a personal triumph."[60] During Mahler's tenure a total of 33 new operas were introduced to the Hofoper; a further 55 were new or totally revamped productions.[61] However, a proposal to stage Richard Strauss's controversial opera Salome in 1905 was rejected by the Viennese censors.[62]

Early in 1902 Mahler met Alfred Roller, an artist and designer associated with the Vienna Secession movement. A year later, Mahler appointed him chief stage designer to the Hofoper, where Roller's debut was a new production of Tristan und Isolde.[63][n 4] The collaboration between Mahler and Roller created more than 20 celebrated productions of, among other operas, Beethoven's Fidelio, Gluck's Iphigénie en Aulide and Mozart's Le nozze di Figaro.[61][65] In the Figaro production, Mahler offended some purists by adding and composing a short recitative scene to Act III.[66]

 A dark plaque with white lettering in which the composer's name is shown in extra large characters on the left, the main message in smaller characters on the right
Plaque on Mahler's Vienna apartment, 2 Auenbruggerstrasse. "Gustav Mahler lived and composed in this house from 1898 to 1909"

In spite of numerous theatrical triumphs, Mahler's Vienna years were rarely smooth; his battles with singers and the house administration continued on and off for the whole of his tenure. While Mahler's methods improved standards, his histrionic and dictatorial conducting style was resented by orchestra members and singers alike.[67] In December 1903 Mahler faced a revolt by stagehands, whose demands for better conditions he rejected in the belief that extremists were manipulating his staff.[68] The anti-Semitic elements in Viennese society, long opposed to Mahler's appointment, continued to attack him relentlessly, and in 1907 instituted a press campaign designed to drive him out.[69] By that time he was at odds with the opera house's administration over the amount of time he was spending on his own music, and was preparing to leave.[65] In May 1907 he began discussions with Heinrich Conried, director of the New York Metropolitan Opera, and on 21 June signed a contract, on very favourable terms, for four seasons' conducting in New York.[69] At the end of the summer he submitted his resignation to the Hofoper, and on 15 October 1907 conducted Fidelio, his 645th and final performance there. During his ten years in Vienna, Mahler had brought new life to the opera house and cleared its debts,[70] but had won few friends—it was said that he treated his musicians in the way a lion tamer treated his animals.[71] His departing message to the company, which he pinned to a notice board, was later torn down and scattered over the floor.[72] After conducting the Hofoper orchestra in a farewell concert performance of his Second Symphony on 24 November, Mahler left Vienna for New York in early December.[73][74]

Philharmonic concerts[editar | editar a fonte]

Silhouette by Otto Böhler

When Richter resigned as head of the Vienna Philharmonic subscription concerts in September 1898,[n 5] the concerts committee had unanimously chosen Mahler as his successor.[76] The appointment was not universally welcomed; the anti-Semitic press wondered if, as a non-German, Mahler would be capable of defending German music.[77] Attendances rose sharply in Mahler's first season, but members of the orchestra were particularly resentful of his habit of re-scoring acknowledged masterpieces, and of his scheduling of extra rehearsals for works with which they were thoroughly familiar.[54] An attempt by the orchestra to have Richter reinstated for the 1899 season failed, because Richter was not interested. Mahler's position was weakened when, in 1900, he took the orchestra to Paris to play at the Exposition Universelle. The Paris concerts were poorly attended and lost money—Mahler had to borrow the orchestra's fare home from the Rothschilds.[78][79] In April 1901, dogged by a recurrence of ill-health and wearied by more complaints from the orchestra, Mahler relinquished the Philharmonic concerts conductorship.[65] In his three seasons he had performed around 80 different works, which included pieces by relatively unknown composers such as Hermann Goetz, Wilhelm Kienzl and the Italian Lorenzo Perosi.[78]

Mature composer[editar | editar a fonte]

 A small grey hut, surrounded by woods, with an open door to which is affixed a picture of the composer
Mahler's second composing hut, at Maiernigg (near Klagenfurt), on the shores of the Wörthersee in Carinthia

The demands of his twin appointments in Vienna initially absorbed all Mahler's time and energy, but by 1899 he had resumed composing. The remaining Vienna years were to prove particularly fruitful. While working on some of the last of his Des Knaben Wunderhorn settings he started his Fourth Symphony, which he completed in 1900.[80] By this time he had abandoned the composing hut at Steinbach and had acquired another, at Maiernigg on the shores of the Wörthersee in Carinthia, where he later built a villa.[81] In this new venue Mahler embarked upon what is generally considered as his "middle" or post-Wunderhorn compositional period.[82] Between 1901 and 1904 he wrote ten settings of poems by Friedrich Rückert, five of which were collected as Rückert-Lieder.[n 6] The other five formed the song cycle Kindertotenlieder ("Songs on the Death of Children"). The trilogy of orchestral symphonies, the Fifth, the Sixth and the Seventh were composed at Maiernigg between 1901 and 1905, and the Eighth Symphony written there in 1906, in eight weeks of furious activity.[65][84]

Within this same period Mahler's works began to be performed with increasing frequency. In April 1899 he conducted the Viennese premiere of his Second Symphony; 17 February 1901 saw the first public performance of his early work Das klagende Lied, in a revised two-part form. Later that year, in November, Mahler conducted the premiere of his Fourth Symphony, in Munich, and was on the rostrum for the first complete performance of the Third Symphony, at the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein festival at Krefeld on 9 June 1902. Mahler "first nights" now became increasingly frequent musical events; he conducted the first performances of the Fifth and Sixth Symphonies at Cologne and Essen respectively, in 1904 and 1906. Four of the Rückert-Lieder, and Kindertotenlieder, were introduced in Vienna on 29 January 1905.[54][65]

Marriage, family, tragedy[editar | editar a fonte]

Ficheiro:YoungAlmaMahler.jpg
Alma Schindler, who married Mahler in 1902 (from 1902, possibly earlier)

During his second season in Vienna, Mahler acquired a spacious modern apartment on the Auenbruggerstrasse and built a summer villa on land he had acquired next to his new composing studio at Maiernigg.[54] In November 1901, he met Alma Schindler, the stepdaughter of painter Carl Moll, at a social gathering that included the theatre director Max Burckhard.[85] Alma was not initially keen to meet Mahler, on account of "the scandals about him and every young woman who aspired to sing in opera."[86] The two engaged in a lively disagreement about a ballet by Alexander von Zemlinsky (Alma was one of Zemlinsky's pupils), but agreed to meet at the Hofoper the following day.[85] This meeting led to a rapid courtship; Mahler and Alma were married at a private ceremony on 9 March 1902. Alma was by then pregnant with her first child,[87] a daughter Maria Anna, who was born on 3 November 1902. A second daughter, Anna, was born in 1904.[65]

1902 portrait by Emil Orlik

Friends of the couple were surprised by the marriage and dubious of its wisdom. Burckhard called Mahler "that rachitic degenerate Jew," unworthy for such a good-looking girl of good family.[88] On the other hand, Mahler's family considered Alma to be flirtatious, unreliable, and too fond of seeing young men fall for her charms.[89] Mahler was by nature moody and authoritarian—Natalie Bauer-Lechner, his earlier partner, said that living with him was "like being on a boat that is ceaselessly rocked to and fro by the waves."[90] Alma soon became resentful because of Mahler's insistence that there could only be one composer in the family and that she had given up her music studies to accommodate him. She wrote in her diary: "How hard it is to be so mercilessly deprived of ... things closest to one's heart."[91] Mahler's requirement that their married life be organized around his creative activities imposed strains, and precipitated rebellion on Alma's part; the marriage was nevertheless marked at times by expressions of considerable passion, particularly from Mahler.[n 7]

In the summer of 1907 Mahler, exhausted from the effects of the campaign against him in Vienna, took his family to Maiernigg. Soon after their arrival both daughters fell ill with scarlet fever and diphtheria. Anna recovered, but after a fortnight's struggle Maria died on 12 July.[94] Immediately following this devastating loss, Mahler learned that his heart was defective, a diagnosis subsequently confirmed by a Vienna specialist, who ordered a curtailment of all forms of vigorous exercise. The extent to which Mahler's condition disabled him is unclear; Alma wrote of it as a virtual death sentence, though Mahler himself, in a letter written to her on 30 August 1907, said that he would be able to live a normal life, apart from avoiding over-fatigue.[95] The illness was, however, a further depressing factor; at the end of the summer the villa at Maiernigg was closed, and never revisited.[96]

Last years, 1908–11[editar | editar a fonte]

New York[editar | editar a fonte]

A tall, imposing stone building in an almost empty city street with tramcar passing. A tower in the background is the only other highrise building.
The Metropolitan Opera, New York, at around the time of Mahler's conductorship, 1908–09

Mahler made his New York debut at the Metropolitan Opera on 1 January 1908, when he conducted Wagner's Tristan und Isolde in the cut version still standard in New York, though long since superseded in Vienna.[94] In a busy first season Mahler's performances were widely praised, especially his Fidelio on 20 March 1908, in which he insisted on using replicas being made of Roller's Vienna sets.[97] On his return to Austria for the summer of 1908, Mahler established himself in the third and last of his composing studios, in the pine forests close to Toblach in Tyrol. Here, using a text by Hans Bethge based on ancient Chinese poems, he composed Das Lied von der Erde ("The Song of the Earth").[94] Despite the symphonic nature of the work, Mahler refused to number it, hoping thereby to escape the "curse of the Ninth Symphony" that he believed had affected fellow-composers Beethoven, Schubert and Bruckner.[73] On 19 September 1908 the premiere of the Seventh Symphony, in Prague, was deemed by Alma Mahler a critical rather than a popular success.[98]

For its 1908–09 season the Metropolitan management brought in the Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini to share duties with Mahler, who made only 19 appearances in the entire season. One of these was a much-praised performance of Smetana's The Bartered Bride on 19 February 1909.[99] In the early part of the season Mahler conducted three concerts with the New York Symphony Orchestra.[100] This renewed experience of orchestral conducting inspired him to resign his position with the opera house and accept the conductorship of the re-formed New York Philharmonic. He continued to make occasional guest appearances at the Met, his last performance being Tchaikovsky's The Queen of Spades on 5 March 1910.[101]

Back in Europe for the summer of 1909, Mahler worked on his Ninth Symphony and made a conducting tour of the Netherlands.[94] The 1909–10 New York Philharmonic season was long and taxing; Mahler rehearsed and conducted 46 concerts, but his programmes were often too demanding for popular tastes. His own First Symphony, given its American debut on 16 December 1909, was one of the pieces that failed with critics and public, and the season ended with heavy financial losses.[102] The highlight of Mahler's 1910 summer was the first performance of the Eighth Symphony at Munich on 12 September, the last of his works to be premiered in his lifetime. The occasion was a triumph—"easily Mahler's biggest lifetime success," according to biographer Robert Carr[103]—but it was overshadowed by the composer's discovery, before the event, that Alma had begun an affair with the young architect Walter Gropius. Greatly distressed, Mahler sought advice from Sigmund Freud, and appeared to gain some comfort from his meeting with the psychoanalyst. One of Freud's observations was that much damage had been done by Mahler's insisting that Alma give up her composing. Mahler accepted this, and started to positively encourage her to write music, even editing, orchestrating and promoting some of her works. Alma agreed to remain with Mahler, although the relationship with Gropius continued surreptitiously. In a gesture of love, Mahler dedicated his Eighth Symphony to her.[65][94]

Illness and death[editar | editar a fonte]

 A tall stone column bearing the words "Gustav Mahler", surrounded by a low green hedge, with a floral bloom in the foreground
Mahler's grave in the Grinzing cemetery, Vienna

In spite of the emotional distractions, during the summer of 1910 Mahler worked on his Tenth Symphony, completing the Adagio and drafting four more movements.[104][105] He and Alma returned to New York in November 1910, where Mahler threw himself into a busy Philharmonic season of concerts and tours. Around Christmas 1910 he began suffering from a sore throat, which persisted. On 21 February 1911, with a temperature of 40 °C (104 °F), Mahler insisted on fulfilling an engagement at Carnegie Hall, with a program of mainly new Italian music, including the world premiere of Busoni's Berceuse élégiaque. This was Mahler's last concert.[106][107][108] After weeks confined to bed he was diagnosed with bacterial endocarditis, a disease to which sufferers from defective heart valves were particularly prone, and for which the survival rate in pre-antibiotic days was almost zero. Mahler did not give up hope; he talked of resuming the concert season, and took a keen interest when one of Alma's compositions was sung at a public recital by the soprano Frances Alda, on 3 March.[109] On 8 April the Mahler family and a permanent nurse left New York on board SS Amerika bound for Europe. They reached Paris ten days later, where Mahler entered a clinic at Neuilly, but there was no improvement; on 11 May he was taken by train to the Löw sanatorium in Vienna, where he died on 18 May.[110]

On 22 May 1911 Mahler was buried in the Grinzing cemetery (de), as he had requested, under a tombstone inscribed only with his name because "any who come to look for me will know who I was and the rest don't need to know."[111] Alma, on doctors' orders, was absent, but among the mourners at a relatively pomp-free funeral were Arnold Schoenberg (whose wreath described Mahler as "the holy Gustav Mahler"), Bruno Walter, Alfred Roller, the Secessionist painter Gustav Klimt, and representatives from many of the great European opera houses.[112] The New York Times, reporting Mahler's death, called him "one of the towering musical figures of his day," but discussed his symphonies mainly in terms of their duration, incidentally exaggerating the length of the Second Symphony to "two hours and forty minutes."[113] In London, The Times obituary said his conducting was "more accomplished than that of any man save Richter," and that his symphonies were "undoubtedly interesting in their union of modern orchestral richness with a melodic simplicity that often approached banality," though it was too early to judge their ultimate worth.[114]

Alma Mahler survived her husband by more than 50 years, dying in 1964. She married Walter Gropius in 1915, divorced him five years later, and married the writer Franz Werfel in 1929.[115] In 1940 she published a memoir of her years with Mahler, entitled Gustav Mahler: Memories and Letters. This account was criticised by later biographers as incomplete, selective and self-serving, and for providing a distorted picture of Mahler's life.[116][n 8] The composer's daughter Anna Mahler became a well-known sculptor; she died in 1988.[118] The International Gustav Mahler Society was founded in 1955 in Vienna, with Bruno Walter as its first president and Alma Mahler as an honorary member. The Society aims to create a complete critical edition of Mahler's works, and to commemorate all aspects of the composer's life.[119]

Obra[editar | editar a fonte]

Romanticismo tardío[editar | editar a fonte]

Mahler foi un compositor do chamado «romántico tardío», que forma parte dun ideal que puxo á música clásica austro-xermana nun plano máis alto que outros tipos, empregando a súa visión espiritual particular e a súa propia idea filosófica.[120] Foi un dos últimos compositores destacados da liña que inclúe, entre outros, a Beethoven, Schubert, Liszt, Wagner, Bruckner ou Brahms[22][121]. Destes antecedentes, Mahler incorporou moitos dos trazos que caracterizarían a súa música. Deste xeito, da Novena Sinfonía de Beethoven tomou a idea de empregar solistas e un coro no xénero sinfónico. De Beethoven, Liszt e (a partir dunha tradición musical diferente) Berlioz, provén o concepto de escribir música cunha narrativa inherente ou «programa» e de ruptura co formato tradicional da sinfonía de catro movementos. Os exemplos de Wagner e Bruckner animaron a Mahler a ampliar a escala das súas obras sinfónicas máis aló dos estándares aceptados anteriormente, para abarcar todo un mundo de sentimentos.[120][121]

Algúns críticos manteñen que a asunción por parte de Mahler de diferentes estilos para adaptarse a diferentes expresións de sentimento significaba que carecía dun estilo propio. Cooke, pola súa banda, afirma que Mahler "compensou os préstamos a través da impronta da súa [propia] personalidade en practicamente todas as notas" para producir música de «orixinalidade excepcional».[122] O crítico musical Harold Schonberg ve a esencia da música de Mahler no tema da loita, na tradición de Beethoven; con todo, para Schonberg, as loitas de Beethoven foron as "dun heroe indomable e triunfal", mentres que as de Mahler son as "dun feble psíquico, un adolescente que se queixa [...] disfrutando da súa miseria, querendo que todo o mundo vexa cómo está sufrindo2.[123] Schonberg recoñece que a maioría das sinfonías conteñen seccións nas que o Mahler "pensador profundo" é superado polo esplendor do Mahler músico.[124] Para Burkholder, soubo atopar xeitos de profundar nos elementos herdados e crear unha música que era recoñecible e, do mesmo xeito, radicalmente nova. Tamén considera que tanto Mahler como Johann Strauss fillo e Claude Debussy forman parte desa primeira xeración de compositores modernos que buscaron un estilo persoal asimilando o útil do pasado, combinando algúns elementos do século XIX coas novas sensibilidades do século XX. Quizais por elo tense convertido nunha música tan popular para os oíentes.[125]

O feito de que estivese firmemente asentado na tradición anterior centroeuropea, non significa que estivera acoomdado á escala wagneriana, senón que expresou unha gran variedade de novas ideas musicais. Esta expansión de recursos é característica tamén de outros compositores desta última fase romántica.[126] Deste xeito, os vínculos coa tradición romántica non coartan a inventiva de Mahler, aparecendo na súa música momentos sumamente irracionais, decadentes ou místicos onde se produce unha revisión da linguaxe musical. En moitos aspectos, isto supuña o esgotamento do romanticismo, mais tamén supuxo un referente para a nova xeración de músicos vieneses apaixonadamente modernistas. Sirva como exemplo a súa forte vinculación con Arnold Schönberg, quen lle adicou o seu Harmonielehre en 1911:[127]

Este libro está adicado á memoria de Gustav Mahler. A dedicatoria [...] trataba de expresar a veneración que sinto polas súas inmortais composicións, mostrando que tales obras, ignoradas polos músicos academicistas e a miúdo desprezadas, son polo contrario adoradas por quen, quizais, non é de todo ignorante.

Para Sadie, a súa enorme influencia na xeración posterior de compositores supuxo a ampliación do marco da sinfonía romántica.[126]

Tres períodos creativos[editar | editar a fonte]

Deryck Cooke e outros analistas dividiron a produción de Mahler en tres períodos distintos: un longo «primeiro período», que se estende desde Das klagende Lied en 1880 ata o final da fase Des Knaben Wunderhorn en 1901; un «período medio» de composición máis concentrada que finaliza con la marcha de Mahler a Nova York en 1907; e un breve «último período» de obras elexíacas antes da súa morte en 1911.[128]

As principais obras do primeiro período son as súas catro primeiras sinfonías, o ciclo de cancións Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, varias coleccións de cancións entre as que predominan as cancións Wunderhorn.[31] Neste período, as cancións e sinfonías están estreitamente relacionadas, e as obras sinfónicas son programáticas. Inicialmente Mahler deu programas descritivos completos ás súas tres sinfonías, que máis tarde rexeitou. Ideou, mais non publicou, os títulos para cada un dos movementos da súa Cuarta Sinfonía. O crítico musical alemán Paul Bekker conxeturou destes títulos un programa no que a Morte aparece no Scherzo «na amigable e lendaria aparencia do violinista tentando ao seu rabaño a seguilo fora deste mundo».[129]

O período medio conta cun tríptico de sinfonías puramente instrumentais (Quinta, Sexta e Sétima), os Rückert-Lieder e os Kindertotenlieder, dous arranxos finais dos Wunderhorn e, segundo a opinión de algúns, a última gran declaración afirmativa de Mahler, a coral Oitava Sinfonía.[82] Cooke cre que a Oitava mantense por si mesma, entre o período medio e o final.[130] Mahler xa abandonara todos os programas explícitos e títulos descritivos; quería escribir música «absoluta» que falara por si mesma.[131] Cooke refírese a «unha nova orquestración dura coma o granito» nas sinfonías do período medio,[82] mentres que as cancións perderon a maior parte do seu carácter folclórico e deixou abonar as sinfonías tan explicitamente como antes.[132]

As obras do breve período final —Das Lied von der Erde e as Sinfonías Novena e Décima (incompleta)— son expresións da experiencia persoal, como o propio compositor enfrontado á morte.[133] Todas as pezas terminan en silencio, o que significa que a aspiración dou paso á resignación.[124] Cooke considera estas obras como unha desexada (que non é amarga) despedida á vida.[134] O compositor Alban Berg chama á Novena «a cousa máis marabillosa que Mahler escribiu xamais».[133] Ningunha destas últimas obras se representou durante a vida del compositor.[135]

A voz na orquestra[editar | editar a fonte]

Coa excepción das súas obras de xuventude, das cales poucas sobreviviron, Mahler só compuxo cancións e sinfonías cunha interrelación complexa e pechada entre ambos xéneros.[a] Donald Mitchell escribe que esta interacción é o telón de fondo contra o que toda a música do compositor pode ser considerada.[136] A conexión inicial entre canción e sinfonía tivo lugar co ciclo de cancións Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen e a Primeira Sinfonía. Aínda que esta evidencia inicial de creación cruzada é importante, é durante a fase estendida do Wunderhorn, na que compuxo as súas Segunda, Terceira e Cuarta Sinfonías, cando os xéneros da canción e a sinfonía se mesturaron constantemente. Temas da canción Wunderhorn «Das himmlische Leben» («A vida celestial»), composta en 1892, converteuse en elemento chave na Terceira Sinfonía, completada en 1896; a canción por sí mesma forma o «Finale» da Cuarta (1900) e a súa melodía é central a toda a composición.[137] Para a Segunda Sinfonía, escrita entre 1888 e 1894, Mahler traballou simultáneamente nas cancións Wunderhorn, «Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt» («O sermón de San Antonio de Padua aos peixes») e no «Scherzo» sobre a base do que se converteu no terceiro movimiento da sinfonía.[138] Outro arranxo Wunderhorn de 1892, «Urlicht» («Luz fundamental»), é empregado no cuarto e penúltimo movemento da Segunda.[139]

Nos seus períodos medio e último, a relación canción-sinfonía é menos directa.[132] Con todo, o musicólogo Donald Mitchell sinala as relacións específicas entre as cancións do período medio e as súas sinfonías contemporáneas —a segunda canción de Kindertotenlieder e o «Adagietto» da Primeira Sinfonía, a última canción de Kindertotenlieder e o Finale da Sexta Sinfonía.[140][141] A súa última obra emprega forzas vocais e orquestrais, Das Lied von der Erde, é unha sinfonía en todo excepto no nome —Mitchell a categoriza como unha «canción e sinfonía».[132]

Son dez as sinfonías do seu catálogo, si ben a última (Décima Sinfonía) quedou inacabada á súa morte. De elas, as números 2, 3, 4 e 8 —a que lle concedeu en vida o único sonado triunfo na súa estrea— inclúen a voz humana, amplificando ata extremas consecuencias o complejo modelo coral de Beethoven na última parte da súa Novena Sinfonía.

Tamén deben mencionarse as transcricións para piano das súas obras (a catro mans e dous pianos). Bruno Walter fixo unha para catro mans da Segunda Sinfonía; o pianista August Stradal realizou outra transcrición da Quinta para dous pianos. Do mesmao xeito, o pianista e musicólogo austríaco Erwin Ratz transcribiu o «Adagio» da Décima Sinfonía para dous pianos.[142]

Estilo musical[editar | editar a fonte]

A unión de canción e forma sinfónica na música de Mahler é, dende o punto de vista de Cooke, orgánico:[143]

As súas cancións florecen naturalmente en movementos sinfónicos, tendo xa molde sinfónico.

Para Sibelius, Mahler expresaba a crenza de que «a sinfonía debe ser como o mundo. Debe abarcalo todo».[144] Fiel a esta crenza, Mahler obtivo material de diversas fontes para as súas cancións e obras sinfónicas: cantos de paxaros e cencerros de vaca para evocar a natureza e o campo, fanfarria de claríns, melodías da rúa e danzas nacionais para lembrar o mundo perdido da súa infancia. Os problemas da vida representanse en estados de ánimo extremos: o anhelo de realización personal o interpreta polo incremento de melodías e harmonías cromáticas, mentres que o sufrimento e a desesperación son representados musicalmente por medio da disonancia, a distorsión e o grotesco. Amais, unha das particularidades de Mahler: a intrusión da banalidade e o absurdo en momentos de profunda seriedade. Por exemplo, no segundo movemento da Quinta Sinfonía, cando unha melodía popular trivial de repente corta unha solemne marcha fúnebre. A melodía trivial pronto cambia o seu carácter e de pronto perfílase como un dos maxestuosos corais de Bruckner que Mahler emprega para significar a esperanza e a resolución de conflitos.[145] O propio Mahler recoñece esta idiosincrasia na súa obra, denominando ao Scherzo da Terceira Sinfonía «a máis absurda e ao mesmo tempo, máis tráxica peza que xamais teña existido ... É como se toda a natureza estivera facendo muecas e sacando a lingua».[146]

Cooke afirma que os múltiples estados de ánimo musicais os consigue por medio dunha «incrible orquestración» de Mahler que, desde o seu punto de vista, desafía ao análise: «fala por si mesma».[147] Franklin enumera as características específicas que son básicas no estilo de Mahler: extremos de volumo, emprego de conxuntos fora do escenario, arranxos pouco convencionais para o elenco orquestral, frecuentes recursos de música popular e formas de danza tales coma o ländler e o valse.[120] O musicólogo Vladimír Karbusický mantén que as raíces xudías do compositor tivo posteriores efectos na súa produción creativa; sinala con precisión a parte central do terceiro movemento da Primeira Sinfonía como a música máis característicamente «Yidish» da obra do compositor.[148] O xornalista e compositor checo Max Brod tamén identificou melodías e ritmos xudeus na música de Mahler.[149]

Un mecanismo técnico moi empregado por Mahler é o da «tonalidade progresiva», que Deryck Cooke describe como «o procedemento de resolver o conflito sinfónico nunha tonalidade diferente á que empezou»[147] e que é empregada con frecuencia «para simbolizar a gradual ascendencia dun valor de progreso desde unha tonalidade a outra durante o desenvolvemento dunha sinfonía».[150] Esta técnica foi empregada tamén polo seu contemporáneo Carl Nielsen. A primeira vez que Mahler empregou este recurso foi nunha das súas primeiras cancións, «Erinnerung» («Memoria»), e posteriormente foi empregado de forma libre nas súas sinfonías. Por exemplo, a tonalidade predominante da Primeira Sinfonía é re maior; ao comezo do «Finale» o movemento «conflito», a tonalidade cambia a fa menor e só despois dunha longa batalla regresa a re, cerca do final. A Segunda Sinfonía comeza en do menor e remata en mi♭.[147] Os movementos da Quinta Sinfonía progresan sucesivamente desde do♯ menor a la menor, logo re maior, fa maior e, finalmente, re maior.[131] A Sexta Sinfonía, inusualmente para Mahler, comeza e termina na mesma tonalidade, la menor, significando que neste caso o conflito non está resolto.[151]

Recepción[editar | editar a fonte]

Primeiras respostas, 1889–1911[editar | editar a fonte]

Bosquexo da caricatura realizada por Theo Zasche «Gustav Mahler dirixe a súa Sinfonía n.º 1 en re maior», que foi publicada por primeira vez en Edición Especial Ilustrada de Viena o 25 de novembro de 1900.

O amigo de Mahler Guido Adler calculou á morte do compositor en 1911 tería habido máis de 260 interpretacións das súas sinfonías en Europa, Rusia e América, a Cuarta Sinfonía con 61 interpretacións foi a máis frecuentemente interpretada (Adler non enumerou as interpretacións das cancións).[152] Durante a súa vida, as obras de Mahler e as súas interpretacións atraeron un gran interese, mais en raras ocasións tiveron unha aprovación sen reservas; nos anos á súa estrea en 1889, a crítica e o público loitaron por entender a Primeira Sinfonía, descrita por un crítico logo dunha interpretación en Dresde en 1898 como "a máis aburrida obra [sinfónica] que a nova época produciu".[153] A Segunda Sinfonía foi recibida de xeito máis positivo, un crítico referiuse a ela como a "máis maxistral deste tipo dende Mendelssohn".[154] Estes eloxios xenerosos foron pouco comúns, particularmente dende despois do ascenso de Mahler á dirección da Hofoper de Viena. Os seus numerosos inimigos na cidade empregaron a prensa antisemita e conservadora para denigrar case toda a interpretación dunha obra de Mahler;[155] en consecuencia a Terceira Sinfonía, un éxito en Krefeld en 1902, foi tratada en Viena con desprecio da crítica: "Calquera que cometera un feito así merece un par de anos de cárcere".[156]

Unha mestura de entusiasmo, consternación e desprecio da crítica converteuse na resposta habitual ante as novas sinfonías de Mahler, aínda que as cancións foron mellor recibidas.[157] Logo de que as súas sinfonías Cuarta e Quinta non conseguiran a aprobación do público, Mahler convenceuse de que a súa Sexta Sinfonía tería finalmente éxito.[158] Con todo, a súa recepción estivo dominada por comentarios satíricos sobre os efectos de percusion pouco convencionais empregados por Mahler como un mazo de madeira, varas de bidueiro e un enorme bombo cadrado.[159] O crítico vienés Heinrich Reinhardt desestimou a sinfonía como "Metais, moitos metais, incriblemente moitos metais! Mesmo máis metais, nada máis que metais!"[160] A única presentación que foi un triunfo rotundo de Mahler en vida foi a estrea da súa Oitava Sinfonía en Múnic o 12 de setembro de 1910, anunciada polos seus promotores como "Sinfonía dos Mil".[b] Á súa conclusión, houbo aplausos e ovacións durante media hora.[161]

Abandono relativo, 1911–50[editar | editar a fonte]

Bruno Walter contribuiu ao rexurdimento da figura de Mahler en Austria entre 1934 e 1938.

As interpretacións das obras de Mahler fixéronse menos frecuentes logo da súa morte. Nos Países Baixos a defensa de Willem Mengelberg asegurou que Mahler seguira a ser popular alí, e o compromiso de Mengelberg coa New York Philharmonic dende 1922 ata 1928 levou a Mahler ás audiencias americanas con regularidade.[152] Con todo, a reacción da maior parte da crítica americana na década de 1920 foi negativa, a pesar do enérxico esforzo do xove compositor Aaron Copland de presentar a Mahler como progresista, 30 anos por diante do seu tempo e infinitamente máis enxeñoso que Richard Strauss.[163] Anteriormente, en 1916, Leopold Stokowski dirixira a estrea americana da Oitava Sinfonía e de Das Lied von der Erde en Filadelfia. A interpretación da Oitava Sinfonía foi un éxito sensacional e foi levada inmediatamente a Nova York, onde obtivo un novo triunfo.[164] En Gran Bretaña a Hallé Orchestra levou Das Lied e a Novena Sinfonía a Manchester en 1931; Sir Henry Wood protagonizou a Oitava en Londres en 1930, e de novo en 1938 cando o mozo Benjamin Britten encontrou a interpretación "execrable" mais quedou impresionado pola música.[165] A crítica británica durante este período tratou en gran parte a Mahler con condescendencia e alabanzas febles. Así Dyneley Hussey, escribindo en 1934, considerou que as "cancións de nenos" eran encantadoras, mais as sinfonías debían ser retiradas.[166] O director e compositor Julius Harrison describiu as sinfonías de Mahler como "interesantes por momentos, mais traballosamente elaboradas" e como carentes de chispa creativa.[167] Bernard Shaw, na súa faceta de crítico musical, considerou que o público musical da década de 1930 encontraba a Mahler (e Bruckner) unha "cara segunda clase".[168]

Antes e que a música de Mahler fora prohibida por "dexenerada" durante a época nazi, as sinfonías e cancións foron interpretadas en salas de concerto de Alemaña e Austria, frecuentemente dirixidas por Bruno Walter ou o xove asistente de Mahler, Otto Klemperer,[152] e tamén por Willem Mengelberg. En Austria, a obra de Mahler experimentou un breve renacemento entre 1934 e 1938, un período coñecido hoxe como 'Austrofascismo', cando o réxime autoritario coa axuda de Alma Mahler e Bruno Walter, que estaban en termos amigables co novo chanceler Kurt Schuschnigg, trataron de facer de Mahler unha icona nacional (cun status comparable ao que Wagner tiña en Alemaña).[169] A música de Mahler foi interpretada na Alemaña nazi en Berlín a principios de 1941 e en Amsterdam durante a ocupación dos Países Baixos por Alemaña, a cargo de orquestras xudías e só para público xudeu; entre as obras interpretadas inclúense a Segunda Sinfonía (Berlín), a Primeira e Cuarta sinfonías, e Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (Amsterdam).[170]

Renacemento moderno[editar | editar a fonte]

According to American composer David Schiff, his compatriot Leonard Bernstein used to imply that he had single-handedly rescued Mahler from oblivion in 1960, after 50 years of neglect. Schiff points out that such neglect was only relative—far less than the (incomplete) disregard of Bach in the years after his death. Although Bernstein gave the Mahler revival further impetus, it was well under way before 1960, sustained by conductors such as Stokowski, Dimitri Mitropoulos and John Barbirolli, and by the long-time Mahler advocate Aaron Copland.[171]

Deryck Cooke argues that Mahler's popularity escalated when a new, postwar generation of music-lovers arose, untainted by "the dated polemics of anti-romanticism" which had affected Mahler's reputation in the inter-war years. In this more liberated age, enthusiasm for Mahler expanded even into places—Spain, France, Italy—which had long been resistant to him.[172] Robert Carr's simpler explanation for the 1950s Mahler revival is that "it was the long-playing record [in the early 1950s] rather than the Zeitgeist which made a comprehensive breakthrough possible. Mahler's work became accessible and repeatable in the home."[173] In the years following his centenary in 1960, Mahler rapidly became one of the most performed and most recorded of all composers, and has largely remained thus. In Britain and elsewhere, Carr notes, the extent of Mahler performances and recordings has replaced a relative famine with a glut, bringing problems of over-familiarity.[173] Harold Schonberg comments that "it is hard to think of a composer who arouses equal loyalty," adding that "a response of anything short of rapture to the Mahler symphonies will bring [to the critic] long letters of furious denunciation."[174]

In a letter to Alma dated 16 February 1902, Mahler wrote, with reference to Richard Strauss: "My day will come when his is ended. If only I might live to see it, with you at my side!"[175] Carr observes that Mahler could conceivably have lived to see "his day"; his near-contemporary Richard Strauss survived until 1949, while Sibelius, just five years younger than Mahler, lived until 1957.[176]

Influencias en compositores posteriores[editar | editar a fonte]

A música de Mahler influíu no seu discípulo Arnold Schönberg, fundador da Segunda Escola de Viena, sendo Mahler un feroz defensor da orixinalidade da música do seu alumno.

Donald Mitchell escribe que a influencia de Mahler en posteriores xeracións de compositores é "un tema completo en si mesmo".[177] Os primeiros discípulos de Mahler, incluído Arnold Schönberg e os seus alumnos Alban Berg e Anton Webern, fundaron a Segunda Escola de Viena.[178] A música de Mahler influenciou o movemento do trío dende o tonalismo progresivo á atonalidade (música sen unha tonalidade); aínda que Mahler rexeitou o atonalismo, converteuse nun feroz defensor da orixinalidade audaz da obra de Schönberg. Na estrea do Primeiro cuarteto de corda deste último en febreiro de 1907, informouse de que Mahler se abstivo de atacar fisicamente aos provocadores que interrompían a audición.[179] Tanto a Serenata op. 24 (1923) de Schönberg, como Tres pezas para orquestra (1915) de Berg e Seis Pezas (1928) de Webern teñen ecos da Sétima Sinfonía de Mahler.[180]

Entre outros compositores cuxa obra ten influencias de Mahler, Mitchell cita ao estadounidense Aaron Copland, ao compositor alemán de cancións e teatro Kurt Weill,[181] ao italiano Luciano Berio, ao ruso Dmitri Shostakóvich e ao británico Benjamin Britten.[182] Nunha entrevista de 1989, o pianista e director Vladímir Áshkenazi afirmou que a conexión entre Mahler e Shostakóvich foi "moi forte e evidente". As súas músicas representaron "o individuo contra os vicios do mundo".[183] Mitchell salienta de Britten o "marabillosamente entusiasta, libre e independente escrito polo vento en ... o primeiro movemento da Sinfonía para violonchelo de 1963 [que] pertence claramente á orde da transparencia e a emancipación instrumental á que Mahler contribuíu en gran medida". Mitchell conclúe coa afirmación: "Mesmo cando a súa propia música non sobrevivira, Mahler gozaría dunha inmortalidade substancial na música destes sucesores preeminentes que abrazaron a súa arte e asimilaron as súas técnicas".[182]

Mahler como director de orquestra[editar | editar a fonte]

Caricatura de 1901 da revista humorística Fliegende Blätter do estilo de dirixir de Mahler.

Durante a súa vida, Mahler tivo un amplo recoñecemento pola súa faceta como director de orquestra, principalmente durante o seu período ao mando da orquestra do Hofoper, entre 1897 e 1907. Dito recoñecemento superou mesmo ao obtido pola súa labor como compositor, debido á falta de comprensión por parte do público que sufriu as súas obras.[184]

O obxectivo de Mahler era conseguir a unidade total da representación, na que tanto a partitura como a escena se influían de xeito recíproco. Mahler decatouse que non era dabondo a fusión entre acción dramática e música para conseguir a súa devecida unidade, xa que tanto a decoración, como o vestiario e a iluminación tamén debían acadar un grao de perfección semellante. Traballou con pintor Alfred Roller co obxectivo de conseguir ese ideal de unidade nas representacións operísticas. Até ese momento, a práctica habitual era mostrar a decoración, o vestiario e a iluminación como un vehículo para satisfacer a un público medianamente culto e que servía como complemento ao conxunto da representación. A iluminación foi máis eficaz debido á introdución de decorados con tres dimensións, á vez que era parte fundamental da representación como elemento capaz de aumentar a potencia de suxestión do drama e da música.[185]

Un dos aspectos máis criticados da súa labor como director foron os retoques que adoitaba realizar á instrumentación das obras doutros compositores, dado o carácter experimental de ditos cambios. Nos seus arranxos usaba o seu amplo coñecemento de tódolos recursos que lle brindaba a orquestra moderna. Esta práctica foi posteriormente ben recibida, aínda que había disparidade de opinións sobre a forma en que tiñan que realizarse.[184] Nalgunhas ocasións, Mahler foi acusado pola arbitrariedade das súas representacións, dada a gran diferenza existente entre as súas interpretacións e as que o público presenciara ata ese momento. En opinión de Bruno Walter, carecían dela.[184]

Durante os seus primeiros anos en Viena, ao igual que durante a súa etapa en Hamburgo, os seus movementos ao dirixir eran «fogosos e violentos», axitábase continuamente, tiña unha gran mobilidade e dirixía sempre sentado. Porén, os seus xestos e movementos non eran excesivos nin superfluos, senón que máis ben parecían «unha especie de conxunto fanático», en palabras de Walter.[186] Esa xesticulación provocou que Mahler fora obxecto de numerosas caricaturas en diversas publicacións da época. Foi depurando o seu estilo co devir dos anos e gradualmente os seus xestos volvéronse máis sobrios. A súa técnica «espiritualizouse» e conseguiu tal grao de concentración que puido combinar a forza e a precisión nunha forma de dirixir en aparencia moi sinxela e sen case mover o resto do corpo. Unha ollada ou un breve aceno eran suficientes para que tanto intérpretes como cantantes obedeceran sen necesidade de recorrer á excesiva xesticulación que antes lle caracterizaba. Nos seus derradeiros anos no Hofoper amosábase extremadamente calmado, aínda que sen restar intensidade á expresión.[186]

Os enfrontamentos cos cantantes e membros da orquestra foron habituais, debido á «brusca impulsividade» na forma de dirixir de Mahler[187] e ao seu estilo histriónico e ditatorial. Entre eles, espertaba unha «fervente admiración» e rexeitamento a partes iguais.[187] Era máis esixente cando traballaba con artistas mellor dotados e cando eran menos talentosos acostumaba empregar métodos máis dondos para obter o mellor deles. Nos ensaios, Mahler non se rexía por normas fixas senón que se guiaba pola súa intuición e instinto.[185]

Adoitaba representar obras de compositores entre os que se encontraban Richard Wagner, Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, Johann Strauss, Piotr Ilich Tchaikovski, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ou Felix Mendelssohn. Tamén dirixiu ocasionalmente óperas de Bedřich Smetana e Píseň bohatýrská de Antonín Dvořák.[188]

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

  1. Mitchell diferenza entre «canción» e «ciclo de cancións»; tamén menospreza o termo «canción sinfonista», que denomina «un horrible cliché que pertence á discutible historia dos críticos de Mahler».[132]
  2. O título de "Sinfonía do Mil" non foi coñecido por Mahler. Robert Carr indica que, na súa estrea en Múnic, había presentes menos de 1.000 intérpretes.[161] Na estrea americana levada a cabo por Leopold Stokowski en 1916, con todo, había 1.068 intérpretes, incluídos 950 coristas.[162]
Referencias
  1. Blaukopf 1974, pp. 15–16.
  2. Cooke 1980, p. 7.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 Sadie 1980, p. 505.
  4. "Mahler's mother: Marie Herrmann Mahler" (en inglés). classicfm.com. Consultado o 18 de outubro de 2017. 
  5. 5,0 5,1 Blaukopf 1974, pp. 18-19.
  6. 6,0 6,1 6,2 6,3 6,4 Franklin, (1. Background, childhood education 1860–80).
  7. Carr 1998, pp. 8–9.
  8. 8,0 8,1 8,2 Blaukopf 1974, pp. 20-22.
  9. Blaukopf, pp. 25–26
  10. Sadie, p. 506
  11. Mitchell, Vol. I pp. 33–38
  12. 12,0 12,1 Blaukopf, pp. 30–31
  13. 13,0 13,1 Blaukopf, pp. 33–35
  14. Blaukopf, pp. 39–40
  15. 15,0 15,1 Carr, pp. 23–24
  16. Cooke, p. 22
  17. Sadie, p. 527
  18. 18,0 18,1 Carr, pp. 24–28
  19. 19,0 19,1 Carr, pp. 30–31
  20. 20,0 20,1 Franklin, (2. Early conducting career, 1880–83).
  21. 21,0 21,1 Carr, pp. 32–34
  22. 22,0 22,1 22,2 Carr, pp. 35–40
  23. 23,0 23,1 23,2 Sadie, p. 507
  24. Franklin, (3. Kassel, 1883–85).
  25. 25,0 25,1 25,2 25,3 25,4 25,5 Franklin, (4. Prague 1885–86 and Leipzig 1886–88).
  26. Carr, p. 43
  27. 27,0 27,1 27,2 27,3 Carr, pp. 44–47
  28. 28,0 28,1 Blaukopf, pp. 61–62
  29. Carr, p. 49
  30. Carr, p. 50
  31. 31,0 31,1 Cooke, pp. 27–30
  32. Carr, pp. 48–49
  33. Franklin, (10. Das klagende Lied, early songs, First symphony).
  34. 34,0 34,1 Mitchell, Vol II pp. 51–53
  35. 35,0 35,1 35,2 35,3 35,4 Franklin, (5. Budapest 1888–91).
  36. 36,0 36,1 36,2 36,3 36,4 36,5 Sadie, pp. 508–09
  37. Carr, p. 52
  38. Mitchell, Vol. II p. 154
  39. Carr, pp. 53–54
  40. Carr, p. 56
  41. Blaukopf, p. 83
  42. 42,0 42,1 42,2 42,3 42,4 Franklin, (6. Hamburg 1891–97).
  43. Steen, p. 750
  44. Carr, p. 59
  45. Mitchell, Vol. II p. 158
  46. Blaukopf, p. 119
  47. Carr, p. 51
  48. Carr, pp. 81–82
  49. Carr, pp. 83–84
  50. Warren Allen Smith, pp. 76–77
  51. La Grange, Vol. 2 p. 20
  52. La Grange, Vol. 2 pp. 20–21
  53. La Grange, Vol 2 p. 5
  54. 54,0 54,1 54,2 54,3 Franklin (7. Vienna 1897–1907)
  55. La Grange, Vol 2 pp. 32–36
  56. La Grange, Vol 2 pp. 49–51
  57. La Grange, Vol 2 p. 54
  58. La Grange, Vol 2 pp. 65–67
  59. Stefan Zweig, Die Welt von Gestern. Erinnerungen eines Europäers, quoted in Fischer, 2011, p. 50
  60. Stefan Zweig, Die Welt von Gestern. Erinnerungen eines Europäers, quoted in Fischer 2011, p. 58.
  61. 61,0 61,1 La Grange, Vol. 3 pp. 941–44
  62. La Grange, Vol. 3 pp. 249–52
  63. La Grange, Vol. 2 pp. 515–16, 560–61
  64. Carr, pp. 138–39
  65. 65,0 65,1 65,2 65,3 65,4 65,5 65,6 Sadie, pp. 510–11
  66. Mitchell, Vol. II pp. 419–22
  67. La Grange, Vol. 2 pp. 130–31, 630–31
  68. La Grange, Vol. 2 pp. 632–34.
  69. 69,0 69,1 Carr, pp. 150–51
  70. Schonberg, p. 140
  71. Snowball, p. 246
  72. Blaukopf, pp. 217–19
  73. 73,0 73,1 Sadie, pp. 512–13
  74. Carr, pp. 154–55
  75. Blaukopf, pp. 150–51
  76. La Grange, Vol 2 p. 116
  77. La Grange, Vol. 2 p. 117
  78. 78,0 78,1 Carr, pp. 87–94
  79. La Grange, Vol. 2 pp. 263–64
  80. Carr, p. 233
  81. Blaukopf, p. 137
  82. 82,0 82,1 82,2 Cooke, pp. 71–94
  83. Carr, p. 129
  84. Carr, p.148
  85. 85,0 85,1 La Grange, Vol. 2 pp. 418–20
  86. A. Mahler, pp. 3–5
  87. La Grange, Vol. 2 pp. 487–89
  88. La Grange, Vol. 2 p. 432
  89. La Grange, Vol. 2 p. 442
  90. Carr, p. 108
  91. Carr, pp. 143–44
  92. A. Mahler, pp. 334–38
  93. Carr, p. 107
  94. 94,0 94,1 94,2 94,3 94,4 Franklin (8. Europe and New York, 1907–11)
  95. Carr, pp. 152–54
  96. Blaukopf, p. 217
  97. Carr, p. 163
  98. A Mahler, p. 143
  99. Anon. 1909.
  100. Anon. 1908.
  101. Blaukopf, pp. 225–26
  102. Carr, pp. 172–73
  103. Carr, p. 207
  104. Blaukopf, p. 254
  105. Cooke, pp. 118–19
  106. "The Philharmonic Concert – An Interesting Programme of Music Representing Italy". The Sun (New York). 22 February 1911. p. 7. Consultado o 16 September 2013. 
  107. Lebrecht, p. 217
  108. Blaukopf, p. 233
  109. Carr, p. 214
  110. Carr, pp. 215–20
  111. Mahler, Alma. Gustav Mahler: Memories and Letters. p. 197. 
  112. Carr, pp. 2–3
  113. Anon. 1911.
  114. Mitchell, Vol. II pp. 413–15
  115. Steen, pp. 764–65
  116. Carr, pp. 106–10, 114
  117. Carr, p. 106
  118. Mitchell (The Mahler Companion), p. 580
  119. "International Gustav Mahler Society, Vienna (Historical Notes: click on "The Society" and "History")". The International Gustav Mahler Society. Consultado o 4 April 2010. 
  120. 120,0 120,1 120,2 Franklin, Peter (2007). Laura Macy, ed. "Mahler, Gustav (9. Musical style)". Oxford Music Online (en inglés). Consultado o 31 de decembro de 2014.  (precisa subscrición)
  121. 121,0 121,1 Cooke, 1980, pp. 10-11
  122. Cooke, 1980, pp. 13-14
  123. Schonberg, 1970, p. 138
  124. 124,0 124,1 Schonberg, 1970, p. 143
  125. Burkholder, 2008, pp. 862, 875 y 890
  126. 126,0 126,1 Sadie, 1994, pp. 371-372
  127. Salvetti, 1994, p. 92
  128. Cooke, 1980, pp. 27, 71 y 103
  129. La Grange, 1995, pp. 757–59
  130. Cooke, 1980, p. 93
  131. 131,0 131,1 La Grange, 1995, p. 805
  132. 132,0 132,1 132,2 132,3 Mitchell, 1995, p. 32
  133. 133,0 133,1 Sadie, 1980, pp. 524-525
  134. Cooke, 1980, p. 103
  135. Blaukopf, 1974, p. 240
  136. Mitchell, 1995, p. 47
  137. Mitchell, 1995, p. 309
  138. La Grange, 1995, p. 743
  139. Mitchell, 1995, p. 136
  140. Sadie, 1980, p. 519
  141. Mitchell, 1995, pp. 36-41
  142. Barham, 2005, p. 459
  143. Cooke, 1980, p. 43
  144. Mitchell, 1995, p. 286
  145. Cooke, 1980, pp. 16-17
  146. La Grange, 1995, p. 179
  147. 147,0 147,1 147,2 Cooke, 1980, p. 14
  148. Karbusický, Vladimír (2005). "Gustav Mahler's Musical Jewishness". En Barham, Jeremy. Perspectives on Gustav Mahler. Aldershot (Reino Unido): Ashgate Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-7546-0709. 
  149. Blaukopf, 1974, p. 140
  150. Deryck Cooke, notas RLPO 29 de maio de 1964
  151. Cooke, 1980, pp. 83-87
  152. 152,0 152,1 152,2 Carr 1998, pp. 221–24.
  153. La Grange 1995, pp. 99, 140.
  154. La Grange 1995, pp. 141–42.
  155. La Grange 1995, pp. 307–09, 148–55.
  156. La Grange 2000, pp. 68–69.
  157. La Grange 2000, pp. 107–08.
  158. La Grange 2000, p. 405.
  159. La Grange 2000, pp. 412–13.
  160. La Grange 2000, p. 536.
  161. 161,0 161,1 Carr 1998, p. 207.
  162. Smith 1990, p. 91.
  163. Copland 2004, pp. 149–50.
  164. Ander Smith 1990, p. 91.
  165. Kennedy, Michael (13 de xaneiro de 2010). "Mahler's mass following". The Spectator (en inglés) (Londres). Consultado o 20 de outubro de 2017. 
  166. Hussey 1934, pp. 455–56.
  167. Harrison 1934, p. 237.
  168. Shaw 1981, p. 753.
  169. Niekerk 2010, pp. 216, 217 e 271.
  170. Niekerk 2010, pp. 216, 271.
  171. Schiff, David (4 November 2001). "Music: The Man who Mainstreamed Mahler". The New York Times. Consultado o 27 March 2010. 
  172. Cooke, pp. 3–4
  173. 173,0 173,1 Erro no código da cita: Etiqueta <ref> non válida; non se forneceu texto para as referencias de nome Carr221
  174. Schonberg, p. 137
  175. A. Mahler, pp. 220–21
  176. Steen. p. 742
  177. Mitchell 1975, pp. 373–374.
  178. Schonberg 1970, pp. 256–58.
  179. La Grange 2000, pp. 608–609.
  180. Carr 1998, p. 105.
  181. Mitchell 1975, p. 261.
  182. 182,0 182,1 Mitchell 1975, pp. 373-374.
  183. Kozinn, Allan (3 de febreiro de 1989). "Ashkenazy Mining A Mahler Vein". The New York Times (en inglés). 
  184. 184,0 184,1 184,2 Walter 2002, pp. 39-40.
  185. 185,0 185,1 (Walter, 2002, p. 36)
  186. 186,0 186,1 Walter 2002, p. 40.
  187. 187,0 187,1 Walter, 2002, p. 20
  188. "Director de orquesta genial". Consultado o 22 de setembro de 2011. 

Véxase tamén[editar | editar a fonte]

Bibliografía[editar | editar a fonte]

Ligazóns externas[editar | editar a fonte]


Erro no código da cita: As etiquetas <ref> existen para un grupo chamado "n", pero non se atopou a etiqueta <references group="n"/> correspondente ou falta unha etiqueta </ref> de peche