Concerto para piano n.º 24 (Mozart)

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Modelo:Infobox musical composition O concerto para piano Nº. 24 en dó menor, K. 491, é un concerto composto por Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart para teclado (normalmente para piano ou fortepiano) e orquestra. Mozart compuxo o concerto no inverno de 1785–1786, e finalizouno o 24 de marzo de 1786, tres semanas despois de completar o seu concerto para piano n.º 23 en la maior. Como ía interpretar a obra el mesmo, Mozart non escribiu a parte solista por completo. A estrea tivo lugar a principios de abril de 1786 no Burgtheater de Viena. Cronoloxicamente, a obra é o vixésimo dos seus 23 concertos para piano orixinais.

A obra é un dos seus dous únicos concertos para piano escritos en modo menor, sendo o outro o nº 20 en re menor. Ningún dos outros concertos para piano de Mozart conta cunha variedade maior de instrumentos na orquestra: a obra está escrita para cordas, madeiras, trompas, trompetas e timbais. O primeiro dos seus tres movementos, Allegro, está escrito en forma sonata e é máis longo que calquera dos movementos iniciais dos concertos temperáns de Mozart. O segundo movemento, Larghetto en [[mi bemol maior|EModelo:Music maior]] —o relativo maior de dó menor— e conta cun tema principal sorprendentemente simple. O movemento final, Allegretto, é un tema e oito variacións en dó menor.

A obra é unha das composicións máis avanzadas de Mozart no xénero do concert. Entre os seus primeiros admiradores inclúense Ludwig van Beethoven e Johannes Brahms. O musicólogo Arthur Hutchings declarou sobre el, tomado en conxunto, que é o mellor concerto para piano de Mozart.

Contexto[editar | editar a fonte]

O concerto foi estreado no Burgtheater (na imaxe) en Viena.

Mozart compuxo o concerto no inverno de 1785–86, durante a súa cuarta tempada en Viena. Foi o terceiro dun grupo de tres concertos escritos nunha rápida sucesión, os outros foron o [[Concerto para piano nº. 22 (Mozart)|nº. 22 en miModelo:Music maior]] e nº. 23 en la maior. Mozart finalizou a composición do nº. 24 pouco antes da estrea da súa ópera cómica Le nozze di Figaro; dúas obras que foron asignadas cos números correlativos 491 e 492 no catálogo Köchel.[1] Aínda que ambas obras están compostas no mesmo período, son moi contrastantes: a ópera está escrita na súa totalidade en tonalidades maiores, mentres que o concerto é unha das poucas obras de Mozart en modo menor.[2] O pianista e musicólogo Robert D. Levin suxire que o concerto, xunto cos dous concertos que o preceden, poderían ter sido unha vía de escape para os aspectos máis sombríos da creatividade de Mozart mentres compuña a ópera cómica.[3]

A estrea do concerto tivo lugar o 3 ou o 7 de abril de 1786 no Burgtheater de Viena; Mozart tocou como solista e dirixiu a orquestra dende o teclado.[n 1]

En 1800, a viúva de Mozart Constanze vendeu a partitura manuscrita orixinal ao editor Johann Anton André de Offenbach am Main. Pasou por varias mans privadas durante o século XIX antes de que Sir George Donaldson, un filántropo escocés, doárao ao Royal College of Music en 1894. O College segue a custodiar a partitura na actualidade.[8] A partitura orixinal non contén indicacións de tempo; o tempo de cada movemento só é coñecido a partir dos rexistros feitos por Mozart no seu catálogo.[2] As partes de orquestra na partitura orixinal están escritas de xeito claro.[5] A parte solista, por outra banda, está frecuentemente incompleta: en moitas ocasións na partitura Mozart escribía só a parte exterior das pasaxes de escalas ou arpexios. Isto suxire que Mozart improvisaba boa parte do papel solista cando interpretaba a obra.[9] A partitura tamén contén adicións posteriores, incluída a do segundo tema da exposición orquestral do primeiro movemento.[10] Hai erros ocasionais de notación na partitura, que o musicólogo Friedrich Blume atribúe a que Mozart "obviamente escribía a toda présa e baixo presión interna".[11]

Música[editar | editar a fonte]

Visión xeral[editar | editar a fonte]

O concerto está dividido nos seguintes tres movementos:[2]

I. Allegro en dó menor, (Modelo:Music)
II. Larghetto en [[Mi bemol maior|miModelo:Music maior]], (Modelo:Music)
III. Allegretto (Variacións) en dó menor, (Modelo:Music), coa oitava variación e a coda en (Modelo:Music)

The concerto is scored for one frauta, dous óboes, dous clarinetes, dous fagots, dúas trompas, dúas trompetas, timbais e cordas.[2] Esta é a maior formación instrumental para a que Mozart compuxo calquera dos seus concertos.[12]

É un dos dous únicos concertos para piano compostos por Mozart que está escrito para dous óboes e dous clarinetes (the other, his concerto for two pianos, has clarinets only in the revised version). The clarinet was not at the time a conventional orchestral instrument. Robert D. Levin writes: "The richness of wind sonority, due to the inclusion of oboes and clarinets, is the central timbral characteristic of [the concerto]: time and again in all three movements the winds push the strings completely to the side."[5]

The solo instrument for the concerto is scored as a "cembalo". This term often denotes a harpsichord, but in this concerto, Mozart used it as a generic term that encompassed the fortepiano, an eighteenth-century version of the modern piano that among other things was more dynamically capable than the harpsichord.[13]

I. Allegro[editar | editar a fonte]

The first movement is longer and more complex than any that Mozart had previously composed in the concerto genre.[14] It is in [[3/4 time|Modelo:Music]]; among Mozart's 27 piano concertos, No. 4 in G Major, No. 11 in F major and [[Piano Concerto No. 14 (Mozart)|No. 14 in EModelo:Music major]] are the only others to commence in triple metre.[2]

The first movement follows the standard outline of a sonata form concerto movement of the Classical period. It begins with an orchestral exposition, which is followed by a solo exposition, a development section, a recapitulation, a cadenza and a coda. Within this conventional outline, Mozart engages in extensive structural innovation.[15]

Exposition[editar | editar a fonte]

The orchestral exposition, 99 measures long, presents two groups of thematic material, one primary and one secondary, both in the tonic of C minor.[15] The orchestra opens the principal theme in unison, but not powerfully: the dynamic marking is piano.[16] The theme is tonally ambiguous, not asserting the home key of C minor until its final cadence in the thirteenth measure.[17] It is also highly chromatic: in its 13 measures, it utilises all 12 notes of the chromatic scale.[2]


    \relative c' {
    \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo 4 = 140
    \key c \minor
    \time 3/4
        c2.(\p^\markup {
              \column {
                \line { Principal theme }
                \line { \bold { Allegro } }
            }
        }
        es2.)
        aes2( g4)
        fis4-. es'-. r8. fis,16
        aes4( g f!)
        e-. des'-. r8. e,16
        ges4( f es!)
        d-. b'-. r8. d,16
        es4-. c'-. r8. es,16
        aes4 aes,( a
        bes b c)
        f g g,
        c
    }

The solo exposition follows its orchestral counterpart, and it is here that convention is discarded from the outset: the piano does not enter with the principal theme. Instead, it has an 18-measure solo passage. It is only after this passage that the principal theme appears, carried by the orchestra. The piano then picks up the theme from its seventh measure.[18] Another departure from convention is that the solo exposition does not re-state the secondary theme from the orchestral exposition. Instead, a succession of new secondary thematic material appears. Musicologist Donald Tovey considered this introduction of new material to be "utterly subversive of the doctrine that the function of the opening tutti [the orchestral exposition] was to predict what the solo had to say."[18]

One hundred measures into the solo exposition, which is now in the relative major of EModelo:Music, the piano plays a cadential trill, leading the orchestra from the dominant seventh to the tonic. This suggests to the listener that the solo exposition has reached an end, but Mozart instead gives the woodwinds a new theme. The exposition continues for another 60 or so measures, before another cadential trill brings about the real conclusion, prompting a ritornello that connects the exposition with the development. The pianist and musicologist Charles Rosen argues that Mozart thus created a "double exposition". Rosen also suggests that this explains why Mozart made substantial elongations to the orchestral exposition during the composition process; he needed a longer orchestral exposition to balance its "double" solo counterpart.[19]

Development[editar | editar a fonte]

The development begins with the piano repeating its entry to the solo exposition, this time in the relative major of EModelo:Music. The Concerto No. 20 is the only other of Mozart's concertos in which the solo exposition and the development commence with the same material. In the Concerto No. 24, the material unfolds in the development in a manner different from the solo exposition: the opening solo motif, with its half cadence, is repeated four times, with one intervention from the woodwinds, as if asking question after question. The final question is asked in C minor and is answered by a descending scale from the piano that leads to an orchestral statement, in F minor, of the movement's principal theme.[20]

The orchestral theme is then developed: the motif of the theme's fourth and fifth measures descends through the circle of fifths, accompanied by an elaborate piano figuration. After this, the development proceeds to a stormy exchange between the piano and the orchestra, which the twentieth-century Mozart scholar Cuthbert Girdlestone describes as "one of the few [occasions] in Mozart where passion seems really unchained",[21] and which Tovey describes as a passage of "fine, severe massiveness".[18] The exchange resolves to a passage in which the piano plays a treble line of sixteenth notes, over which the winds add echoes of the main theme. This transitional passage ultimately modulates to the home key of C minor, bringing about the start of the recapitulation with the conventional re-statement, by the orchestra, of the movement's principal theme.[21]

Recapitulation, cadenza and coda[editar | editar a fonte]

The wide range of thematic material presented in the orchestral and solo expositions poses a challenge for the recapitulation. Mozart manages to recapitulate all of the themes in the home key of C minor. The themes are necessarily compressed, are presented in a different order, and in their restated form, contain few virtuosic moments for the soloist.[22][23] The last theme to be recapitulated is the secondary theme of the orchestral exposition, which has not been heard for some 400 measures and is now adorned by a passage of triplets from the piano. The recapitulation concludes with the piano playing arpeggiated sixteenths before a cadential trill leads into a ritornello. The ritornello in turn leads into a fermata that prompts the soloist's cadenza.[24]

Mozart did not write down a cadenza for the movement, or at least there is no evidence of him having done so.[25] Many later composers and performers, including Johannes Brahms, Ferruccio Busoni and Gabriel Fauré, have composed their own.[26][27] Uniquely among Mozart's concertos, the score does not direct the soloist to end the cadenza with a cadential trill. The omission of the customary trill is likely to have been deliberate, with Mozart choosing to have the cadenza connect directly to the coda without one.[28]

The conventional Mozartian coda concludes with an orchestral tutti and no written-out part for the soloist. In this movement, Mozart breaks with convention: the soloist interrupts the tutti with a virtuosic passage of sixteenth notes and accompanies the orchestra through to the final pianissimo C-minor chords.[29][30]

II. Larghetto[editar | editar a fonte]

Alfred Einstein said of the concerto's second movement that it "moves in regions of the purest and most moving tranquility, and has a transcendent simplicity of expression".[31] Marked Larghetto, the movement is in EModelo:Music major and cut common time. The trumpets and timpani play no part; they return for the third movement.[32]

The movement opens with the soloist playing the four-measure principal theme alone; it is then repeated by the orchestra.


    \relative c'' {
    \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo 8 = 100
    \key es \major
    \time 2/2
        bes4^\markup {
              \column {
                \line { Principal theme }
                \line { \bold { Larghetto } }
            }
        }
        bes8. bes16 bes8( es) es4
        g8( d es f) bes,2
        g'4 g8. g16 bes8.( g16) es4
        d,8 d d d es4 r4
    }

This theme is, in the words of Michael Steinberg, one of "extreme simplicity".[33] Donald Tovey refers to the fourth bar, extremely bare and lacking any ornamentation, as "naive", but considers that Mozart intended for it to be so.[25] Mozart's first sketch of the movement was much more complex. He likely simplified the theme to provide a greater contrast with the dark intensity of the first movement.[34] After the orchestra repeats the principal theme, there is a very simple bridge or transitional passage that Girdlestone calls "but a sketch" to be ornamented by the soloist, arguing that "to play it as printed is to betray the memory of Mozart".[35][n 2]

Following the bridge passage, the soloist plays the initial four-measure theme for a second time, before the orchestra commences a new section of the movement, in C minor. A brief return of the principal theme, its rhythm altered,[33] separates the C minor section from a section in [[A-flat major|AModelo:Music major]].[36] After this new section, the principal theme returns to mark the end of the movement, its rhythm altered yet again.[33] Now, the theme is played twice by the soloist, the two appearances being connected by the same simple bridge passage from the beginning of the movement. Girdlestone argues that here "the soloist will have to draw on his imagination to adorn [the simple bridge passage] a second time".[35] The overall structure of the movement is thus ABACA, making the movement in rondo form.[37]

In the middle statement of the principal theme (between the C minor and AModelo:Music major sections), there is a notational error which, in a literal performance of the score, causes a harmonic clash between the piano and the winds. Mozart probably wrote the piano and wind parts at different times, resulting in an oversight by the composer.[38] Alfred Brendel, who has recorded the concerto on multiple occasions, argues that performers should not follow the score literally but correct Mozart's error. Brendel further argues that the time signature for the whole movement is another notational error: played in cut common time, which calls for two beats per bar rather than four, the movement is, in his view, too fast.[39]

The form of the movement is nearly identical to that of the second movement of Mozart's [[Piano Sonata No. 17 (Mozart)|Piano Sonata in BModelo:Music major, K. 570]].

III. Allegretto[editar | editar a fonte]

The third movement features a theme in C minor followed by eight variations upon it.[40] Hutchings considered it "both Mozart's finest essay in variation form and also his best concerto finale."[41]


    \relative c'' {
    \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo 4 = 112
    \key c \minor
    \time 2/2
        \partial 4 g4\p(^\markup {
              \column {
                \line { Theme }
                \line { \bold { Allegretto } }
            }
        }
        es) es( d) d(
        c) r r g'(
        c) c( es fis,)
        g r r g(
        aes) aes-.( aes-. aes-.)
        \grace { aes32( bes32} c4) bes8 aes g4 g
        \grace { g32( a32} bes4) a!8 g g4( fis)
        \partial 2. g r r \bar ":..:" \break
       
        \partial 4 g(
        f) g( es) g(
        d) r r aes''~
        aes( g fis f)
        es r r c(
        des) des-.( des-. des-.)
        \grace { des32( es32} f4) es8 des! c4 c
        \grace { c32( d!32} es4) d8 c c4( b)
        \partial 2. c r r \bar ":|."
    }

The tempo marking for the movement is Allegretto. Rosen opines that this calls for a march-like speed and argues that the movement is "generally taken too fast under the delusion that a quick tempo will give it a power commensurate with that of the opening movement."[29] Pianist Angela Hewitt sees in the movement not a march but a "sinister dance".[7]

The movement opens with the first violins stating the theme over a string and wind accompaniment. This theme consists of two eight-measure phrases, each repeated: the first phrase modulates from C minor to the dominant, G minor; the second phrase modulates back to C minor.[42] The soloist does not play any part in the statement of the theme, entering only in Variation I. Here, the piano ornaments the theme over an austere string accompaniment.[43]

Variations II to VI are what Girdlestone and Hutchings independently describe as "double" variations. Within each variation, each of the eight-measure phrases from the theme is further varied upon its repeat (AXAYBXBY).[40][43][n 3] Variations IV and VI are in major keys. Tovey refers to the former (in AModelo:Music) as "cheerful" and the latter (in C) as "graceful".[44] Between the two major-key variations, Variation V returns to C minor; Girdlestone describes this variation as "one of the most moving".[45] Variation VII is half the length of the preceding variations, as it omits the repeat of each eight-measure phrase.[43] This variation concludes with an extra three-measure passage that culminates in a dominant chord, announcing the arrival of a cadenza.[46]

After the cadenza, the soloist opens the eighth and final variation alone, with the orchestra joining after 19 measures. The arrival of the final variation also brings a change in metre: from cut common time to compound duple time.[47] Both the final variation and the coda which follows contain numerous neapolitan-sixth chords. Girdlestone referred to the "haunting" effect of these chords and stated that the coda ultimately "proclaims with desperation the triumph of the minor mode".[46]

Critical reception[editar | editar a fonte]

Ludwig van Beethoven admired the concerto and it may have influenced his Piano Concerto No. 3, also in C minor.[31][44] After hearing the work in a rehearsal, Beethoven reportedly remarked to a colleague that "[w]e shall never be able to do anything like that."[44][48] Johannes Brahms also admired the concerto, encouraging Clara Schumann to play it, and wrote his own cadenza for the first movement.[49] Brahms referred to the work as a "masterpiece of art and full of inspired ideas."[50]

Among modern and twentieth-century scholars, Cuthbert Girdlestone states that the concerto "is in all respects one of [Mozart's] greatest; we would fain say: the greatest, were it not impossible to choose between four or five of them."[46] Referring to the "dark, tragic and passionate" nature of the concerto, Alfred Einstein states that "it is hard to imagine the expression on the faces of the Viennese public" when Mozart premiered the work.[34] The musicologist Simon P. Keefe, in an exegesis of all of Mozart's piano concertos, writes that the No. 24 is "a climactic and culminating work in Mozart's piano concerto oeuvre, firmly linked to its predecessors, yet decisively transcending them at the same time."[51] The verdict of the Mozart scholar Alexander Hyatt King is that the concerto is "not only the most sublime of the whole series but also one of the greatest pianoforte concertos ever composed".[52] Arthur Hutchings's view is that "whatever value we put upon any single movement from the Mozart concertos, we shall find no work greater as a concerto than this K. 491, for Mozart never wrote a work whose parts were so surely those of 'one stupendous whole'."[40]

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

  1. Algunhas fontes sinalan que a estrea foi o 3 de abril;[2][4] outras suxiren que esta tivo lugar o 7 de abril.[5][6][7]
  2. Tovey similarly acknowledges that the soloist may need to add ornamentation to the written-out part. However, Tovey cautions against taking ornamentation too far, stating that "one is thankful [for the soloist] to do as little as possible; for any deviation from Mozart's style, even a deviation into early Beethoven, sets one's teeth on edge."[25]
  3. The use by Girdlestone and Hutchings of the description "double" variations should not be confused with the double variation form often used by Joseph Haydn for the form of a whole movement (ABA1B1).
Referencias
  1. Kerman, p. 166
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 Steinberg, p. 312
  3. Levin, Robert D. "Piano Concerto in C minor, K, 491, annotated original score: Introduction" (PDF). www.baerenreiter.com. Bärenreiter. Arquivado dende o orixinal (PDF) o 27 March 2015. 
  4. Irving, p. 238
  5. 5,0 5,1 5,2 Levin, p. 380
  6. Keller, James M. "Mozart: Concerto No. 24 in C Minor for Piano and Orchestra, K. 491". San Francisco Symphony Orchestra. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 2 April 2015. 
  7. 7,0 7,1 Hewitt, Angela. "Piano Concerto No 24 in C minor, K491". Hyperion Records. 
  8. Lawson, Colin. "Piano Concerto in C minor, K, 491, annotated original score: Preface" (PDF). www.baerenreiter.com. Bärenreiter. Arquivado dende o orixinal (PDF) o 2 April 2015.  O valor |dead-url=bot: unknown é incorrecto (Axuda)
  9. Mishkin. p. 352
  10. Mishkin, pp. 354–356
  11. Blume, p. 231
  12. Hutchings, p. 170
  13. Libin, p. 17
  14. Keefe (2003), p. 87
  15. 15,0 15,1 Lindeman, p. 298
  16. Wen, p. 108
  17. Levin, pp. 380–381
  18. 18,0 18,1 18,2 Tovey, p. 43
  19. Rosen, pp. 245–246
  20. Girdlestone, pp. 395–396
  21. 21,0 21,1 Girdlestone, p. 396
  22. Rosen, pp. 249–250
  23. Girdlestone, pp. 398–399
  24. Girdlestone, pp. 399–400
  25. 25,0 25,1 25,2 Tovey, p. 45
  26. Bribitzer-Stull, p. 234
  27. "Piano Concerto No.24 in C minor, K.491 (Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus)". IMSLP. Petrucci Music Library. Consultado o 27 March 2017. 
  28. Kerman, pp. 164–165
  29. 29,0 29,1 Rosen, p. 250
  30. Girdlestone, p. 400
  31. 31,0 31,1 Einstein, p. 311
  32. Stock, p. 212
  33. 33,0 33,1 33,2 Steinberg, p. 313
  34. 34,0 34,1 Einstein, p. 138
  35. 35,0 35,1 Girdlestone, p. 404
  36. Stock, p. 213
  37. Tischler, p. 111
  38. Levin, p. 392
  39. Brendel, Alfred (27 June 1985). "A Mozart Player Gives Himself Advice". The New York Review of Books. 
  40. 40,0 40,1 40,2 Hutchings, p. 174
  41. Hutchings, p. 173
  42. Girdlestone, p. 407
  43. 43,0 43,1 43,2 Girdlestone, p. 408
  44. 44,0 44,1 44,2 Tovey, p. 46
  45. Girdlestone, p. 409
  46. 46,0 46,1 46,2 Girdlestone, p. 410
  47. King, p. 99
  48. Kinderman, p. 297
  49. Wen, pp. 123–124
  50. Wen, p. 107; the quote is Wen's translation from the work of Richard Heuberger, Erinnerungen an Johannes Brahms, Tutzing, 1971, p. 93. According to Heuberger, Brahms' original statement in German was: "ein Wunderwerk der Kunst und voll genialie Einfälle".
  51. Keefe (2001), p. 78
  52. King, p. 95

Véxase tamén[editar | editar a fonte]

Bibliografía[editar | editar a fonte]

  • Blume, Friedrich (1956). "The Concertos: (1) Their Sources". En H. C. Robbins Landon and Donald Mitchell. The Mozart Companion. New York: Oxford University Press. OCLC 2048847. 
  • Bribitzer-Stull, Matthew (2006). "The Cadenza as Parenthesis: An Analytic Approach". Journal of Music Theory 50 (2). 
  • Einstein, Alfred (1945). Mozart, His Character, His Work (1962 edition). New York: Oxford University Press. OCLC 511324. 
  • Girdlestone, Cuthbert (1948). Mozart's Piano Concertos. London: Cassell. OCLC 247427085. 
  • Hutchings, A. (1948). A Companion to Mozart's Piano Concertos. London: Oxford University Press. OCLC 20468493. 
  • Irving, John (2003). Mozart's Piano Concertos. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN 0754607070. 
  • Keefe, Simon P. (2003). "The concertos in aesthetic and stylistic context". En Simon P. Keefe. The Cambridge Companion to Mozart. Cambridge Companions to Music. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521001927. 
  • Keefe, Simon P. (2001). Mozart's Piano Concertos: Dramatic Dialogue in the Age of Enlightenment. Rochester, New York: Boydell Press. ISBN 085115834X. 
  • Kerman, Joseph (1994). "Mozart's Piano Concertos and Their Audience". En James M. Morris. On Mozart. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521476615. 
  • Kinderman, William (1996). "Dramatic Development and Narrative Design in the First Movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto in C Minor, K. 491". En Neil Zaslaw. Mozart's Piano Concertos: Text, Context, Interpretation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472103148. 
  • King, A. Hyatt (1952). "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791)". En Ralph Hill. The Concerto. Melbourne: Penguin Books. OCLC 899058745. 
  • Lindeman, Stephan D. (1999). Structural Novelty and Tradition in the Early Romantic Piano Concerto. Stuyvesant, New York: Pendragon Press. ISBN 1576470008. 
  • Levin, Robert D. (2003). "Mozart's Keyboard Concertos". En Robert L. Marshall. Eighteenth-Century Keyboard Music. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415966426. 
  • Libin, Laurence (2003). "The Instruments". En Robert L. Marshall. Eighteenth-Century Keyboard Music. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415966426. 
  • Mishkin, Henry G. (1975). "Incomplete Notation in Mozart's Piano Concertos". The Musical Quarterly 61 (3): 345. doi:10.1093/mq/lxi.3.345. 
  • Rosen, Charles (1976). The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven (Revised ed.). London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0571049052. 
  • Steinberg, Michael (1998). The Concerto: A Listener's Guide. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 019802634X. 
  • Stock, Jonathan P.J. (May 1997). "Orchestration as Structural Determinant: Mozart's Deployment of Woodwind Timbre in the Slow Movement of the C Minor Piano Concerto K. 491". Music & Letters 78 (3). 
  • Tischler, Hans (1966). A Structural Analysis of Mozart's Piano Concertos. Brooklyn: Institute of Mediaeval Music. ISBN 0912024801. 
  • Tovey, Donald (1936). Essays in Musical Analysis, volume 3. London: Oxford University Press. OCLC 22689261. 
  • Wen, Eric (1990). "Enharmonic transformation in the first movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto in C Minor, K. 491". En Hedi Siegel. Schenker Studies: Symposium: Papers. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521360382. 

Ligazóns externas[editar | editar a fonte]

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Modelo:Mozart piano concertos