Pteranodon

Na Galipedia, a Wikipedia en galego.
Saltar ata a navegación Saltar á procura

Pteranodon
Rango fósil: Cretáceo superior 86 Ma-84,5 Ma
Pteranodon amnh martyniuk.jpg
Réplica de un esqueleto de un P. longiceps macho, Museo Americano de Historia Natural
Clasificación científica
Reino: Animalia
Filo: Chordata
Clase: Sauropsida
Orde: Pterosauria
Suborde: Pterodactyloidea
Superfamilia: Ornithocheiroidea
Familia: Pteranodontidae
Xénero: Pteranodon
Marsh, 1876
Especies
Sinonimia

Pteranodon (do grego: πτερόν (pteron, "alado"; e ἀνόδων (anodon, "sen dentes"; ou "alado sen dentes") é un xénero de pterosauros pterodactiloideos, sendo un dos réptiles alados máis grandes que se coñecen, cunha envergadura de arredor de sete metros. Viviu durante o período xeolóxico do Cretáceo superior e os seus restos fósiles foron atopados en América do Norte, nos actuais territorios de Kansas, Alabama, Nebrasca, Wyoming e Dacota do Sur. Descubríronse moitos especímenes fósiles de Pteranodon, con máis de 1 200 especímenes coñecidos pola ciencia, supoñendo máis que calquera outro tipo de pterosauro. Moitos deles estaban moi ben preservados con esqueletos articulados e caveiras case completas. Foi un membro importante da fauna do mar interior occidental.[1]

Características[editar | editar a fonte]

Carecía practicamente de cola; a súa cabeza era máis ancha que a das formas xurásicas, cunha prolongación a modo de crista e sen dentes. A súa gran crista na parte posterior da cabeza probablemente axudáballe a equilibrar o peso do pico e da pesca. Pesou ata 20 kg e mediu ata 9 m de envergadura. As súas patas eran tan débiles que se dubida de que puidesen andar polo chan.

Dieta[editar | editar a fonte]

A súa dieta era piscívora (atopouse ósos fosilizados de peixes no estómago dun espécime). Seguramente empregaba o seu longo pico a modo de pa para capturar peces mentres voaba preto da superficie do mar. Unha bolsa baixo o pico permitíalle almacenar peixe, como o pelicano actual.

Especies[editar | editar a fonte]

Describíronse varias especies de Pteranodon, aínda que non todas están ben fundamentadas. As mellor establecidas distínguense pola forma da crista; en Pteranodon longiceps é recta e diríxese cara atrás, mentres que en Pteranodon sternbergi é máis vertical e profunda.

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

  1. Bennett, S.C. (2000). "Inferring stratigraphic position of fossil vertebrates from the Niobrara Chalk of western Kansas." Current Research in Earth Sciences: Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 244(Part 1): 26 pp.

Véxase tamén[editar | editar a fonte]

Bibliografía[editar | editar a fonte]

  • Anonymous. 1872. On two new Ornithosaurians from Kansas. American Journal of Science, Series 3, 3(17):374–375. (Probably by O. C. Marsh)
  • Bennett, S. C. 2000. New information on the skeletons of Nyctosaurus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(Supplement to Number 3): 29A. (Abstract)
  • Bennett, S. C. (2001). "The osteology and functional morphology of the Late Cretaceous pterosaur Pteranodon. Part II. Functional morphology". Palaeontographica, Abteilung A 260: 113–153. 
  • Bennett, S. C. (2003). "New crested specimens of the Late Cretaceous pterosaur Nyctosaurus". Paläontologische Zeitschrift 77: 61–75. doi:10.1007/bf03004560. 
  • Bennett, S. C. (2007). "Articulation and function of the pteroid bone of pterosaurs". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (4): 881–891. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2007)27[881:aafotp]2.0.co;2. 
  • Betts, C. W. 1871. The Yale College Expedition of 1870. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, 43(257):663–671. (Issue of October, 1871)
  • Bonner, O. W. 1964. An osteological study of Nyctosaurus and Trinacromerum with a description of a new species of Nyctosaurus. Unpub. Masters Thesis, Fort Hays State University, 63 pages.
  • Brower, J. C. (1983). "The aerodynamics of Pteranodon and Nyctosaurus, two large pterosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Kansas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 3 (2): 84–124. doi:10.1080/02724634.1983.10011963. 
  • Cope, E. D. 1872. On the geology and paleontology of the Cretaceous strata of Kansas. Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories 5:318–349 (Report for 1871).
  • Cope, E. D. (1872). "On two new Ornithosaurians from Kansas". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 12 (88): 420–422. 
  • Cope, E. D. (1874). "Review of the Vertebrata of the Cretaceous period found west of the Mississippi River". U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories Bulletin 1 (2): 3–48. 
  • Eaton, G. F. 1903. The characters of Pteranodon. American Journal of Science, ser. 4, 16(91):82–86, pl. 6-7.
  • Eaton, G. F. 1904. The characters of Pteranodon (second paper). American Journal of Science, ser. 4, 17(100):318–320, pl. 19-20.
  • Eaton, G. F. (1908). "The skull of Pteranodon". Science. XXVII: 254–255. 
  • Everhart, M. J. 1999. An early occurrence of Pteranodon sternbergi from the Smoky Hill Member (Late Cretaceous) of the Niobrara Chalk in western Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 18(Abstracts):27.
  • Everhart, M. J. 2005. Oceans of Kansas – A Natural History of the Western Interior Sea. Indiana University Press, 320 pp.
  • Harksen, J. C. (1966). "Pteranodon sternbergi, a new fossil pterodactyl from the Niobrara Cretaceous of Kansas". Proceedings South Dakota Academy of Science 45: 74–77. 
  • Kripp, D. von. (1943). "Ein Lebensbild von Pteranodon ingens auf flugtechnischer Grundlage". Nova Acta Leopoldina. N.F. 12 (83): 16–32. 
  • Lane, H. H. 1946. A survey of the fossil vertebrates of Kansas, Part III, The Reptiles, Kansas Academy Science, Transactions 49(3):289–332, figs. 1–7.
  • Marsh, O. C. 1871. Scientific expedition to the Rocky Mountains. American Journal of Science ser. 3, 1(6):142–143.
  • Marsh, O. C. 1871. Notice of some new fossil reptiles from the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations. American Journal of Science, Series 3, 1(6):447–459.
  • Marsh, O. C. 1871. Note on a new and gigantic species of Pterodactyle. American Journal of Science, Series 3, 1(6):472.
  • Marsh, O. C. 1872. Discovery of additional remains of Pterosauria, with descriptions of two new species. American Journal of Science, Series 3, 3(16):241–248.
  • Marsh, O. C. 1881. Note on American pterodactyls. American Journal of Science, Series 3, 21(124):342–343.
  • Marsh, O. C. 1882. The wings of Pterodactyles. American Journal of Science, Series 3, 23(136):251–256, pl. III.
  • Marsh, O. C. 1884. Principal characters of American Cretaceous pterodactyls. Part I. The skull of Pteranodon. American Journal of Science, Series 3, 27(161):422–426, pl. 15.
  • Miller, H. W. (1971). "The taxonomy of the Pteranodon species from Kansas". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 74 (1): 1–19. JSTOR 3627663. doi:10.2307/3627663. 
  • Miller, H. W. (1971). "A skull of Pteranodon (Longicepia) longiceps Marsh associated with wing and body parts". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 74 (10): 20–33. JSTOR 3627664. doi:10.2307/3627664. 
  • Padian, K (1983). "A functional analysis of flying and walking in pterosaurs". Paleobiology 9 (3): 218–239. doi:10.1017/S009483730000765X. 
  • Russell, D. A. 1988. A check list of North American marine cretaceous vertebrates Including fresh water fishes, Occasional Paper of the Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, (4):57.
  • Schultze, H.-P., L. Hunt, J. Chorn e A. M. Neuner, 1985. Type and figured specimens of fossil vertebrates in the collection of the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Part II. Fossil Amphibians and Reptiles. Miscellaneous Publications of the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History 77:66 pp.
  • Seeley, Harry G. 1871. Additional evidence of the structure of the head in ornithosaurs from the Cambridge Upper Greensand; being a supplement to "The Ornithosauria." The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 4, 7:20–36, pls. 2–3. (Discovery of toothless pterosaurs in England)
  • Shor, E. N. 1971. Fossils and flies; The life of a compleat scientist – Samuel Wendell Williston, 1851–1918, University of Oklahoma Press, 285 pp.
  • Sternberg, C. H. 1990. The life of a fossil hunter, Indiana University Press, 286 pp. (Orixinalmente publicado en 1909 por Henry Holt e Company)
  • Sternberg, G. F.; Walker, M. V. (1958). "Observation of articulated limb bones of a recently discovered Pteranodon in the Niobrara Cretaceous of Kansas". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 61 (1): 81–85. JSTOR 3626742. doi:10.2307/3626742. 
  • Stewart, J. D. 1990. Niobrara Formation vertebrate stratigraphy. pp. 19–30 in Bennett, S. C. (ed.), Niobrara Chalk Excursion Guidebook, The University of Kansas Museum of Natural History and the Kansas Geological Survey.
  • Wang, X.; Zhou, Z. (2004). "Pterosaur embryo from the Early Cretaceous". Nature 429 (6992): 621. Bibcode:2004Natur.429..621W. PMID 15190343. doi:10.1038/429621a. 
  • Wellnhofer, P. 1991. The illustrated encyclopedia of pterosaurs. Crescent Books, Nova York, 192 pp.
  • Williston, S. W. (1891). "The skull and hind extremity of Pteranodon". American Naturalist 25 (300): 1124–1126. doi:10.1086/275456. 
  • Williston, S. W. 1892. Kansas pterodactyls. Part I. Kansas University Quarterly 1:1–13, pl. i.
  • Williston, S. W. 1893. Kansas pterodactyls. Part II. Kansas University Quarterly 2:79–81, with 1 fig.
  • Williston, S. W. (1895). "Note on the mandible of Ornithostoma". Kansas University Quarterly 4: 61. 
  • Williston, S. W. 1896. On the skull of Ornithostoma. Kansas University Quarterly 4(4):195–197, with pl. i.
  • Williston, S. W. 1897. Restoration of Ornithostoma (Pteranodon)" Kansas University Quarterly 6:35–51, with pl. ii.
  • Williston, S. W. (1902). "On the skeleton of Nyctodactylus, with restoration". American Journal of Anatomy 1 (3): 297–305. doi:10.1002/aja.1000010306. 
  • Williston, S. W. 1902. On the skull of Nyctodactylus, an Upper Cretaceous pterodactyl. Journal of Geology 10:520–531, 2 pls.
  • Williston, S. W. 1902. Winged reptiles. Pop. Science Monthly 60:314–322, 2 figs.
  • Williston, S. W. 1903. On the osteology of Nyctosaurus (Nyctodactylus), with notes on American pterosaurs. Field Mus. Publ. (Geological Ser.) 2(3):125–163, 2 figs., pls. XL-XLIV.
  • Williston, S. W. 1904. The fingers of pterodactyls. Geological Magazine, Series 5, 1: 59–60.
  • Williston, S. W. (1911). "The wing-finger of pterodactyls, with restoration of Nyctosaurus". Journal of Geology 19 (8): 696–705. Bibcode:1911JG.....19..696W. doi:10.1086/621914. 
  • Williston, S. W. (1912). "A review of G. B. Eaton's "Osteology of Pteranodon"". Journal of Geology 20 (3): 288. Bibcode:1912JG.....20..288E. doi:10.1086/621967. 

Ligazóns externas[editar | editar a fonte]