Mouros

Na Galipedia, a Wikipedia en galego.
Embaixadores casteláns tentando convencer ó rei mouro Abu Hafs Umar al-Murtada a unirse á súa alianza (representación das Cantigas de Santa María).

O termo mouros[1] refírese ós habitantes musulmáns do Maghreb, da Península Ibérica, Sicilia e Malta durante a Idade Media, que orixinalmente eran de ascendencia bérber e árabe.[2][3][4] É un termo popular e coloquial, cuxo uso habitual pode ou non ter connotacións pexorativas. Os mouros non son un pobo autodefinido,[5] e os principais estudosos observaron en 1911 que "o termo 'Mouros' non ten valor etnolóxico."[6] Os europeos medievais e modernos empregaron o nome para facer referencia a árabes, bérberes, africanos do norte e musulmáns europeos.[7]

No ano 711, os mouros invadiron a Península Ibérica dende o Norte de África e chamaron ó territorio Al-Andalus, que abranguía a meirande parte das actuais España e Portugal. Os mouros ocuparon Mazara en Sicilia no ano 827, desenvolvéndoa como un porto,[8] e posteriormente consolidáronse no resto da illa e en Italia. As diferenzas de relixión e cultura conlevaron a un conflito que durou por séculos cos Reinos Cristiáns de Europa, que tentaron recuperar o control das áreas musulmás. Este período foi coñecido como Reconquista. En 1224, os musulmáns foron expulsados dende Sicilia até o asentamento de Lucera, que foi destruído polos cristiáns en 1300. A caída de Granada en 1492 marcou o final do dominio musulmán na Península Ibérica.

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

  1. Definicións no Dicionario da Real Academia Galega e no Portal das Palabras para mouro.
  2. Os árabes chamados Muwalladun ou Muladi. Menocal (2002). Ornament of the World, p. 16
  3. Richard A Fletcher, Moorish Spain (University of California Press, 2006), p.1.
  4. Spanish Fiestas, ed. (5 de marzo de 2012). "History of Moorish Spain". Consultado o 11 de maio de 2016. 
  5. Ross Brann, "The Moors?", Andalusia, New York University. Quote: "Andalusi Arabic sources, as opposed to later Mudéjar and Morisco sources in Aljamiado and medieval Spanish texts, neither refer to individuals as Moors nor recognize any such group, community or culture."
  6. Britannica Encyclopedia (1911). p. 811. 
  7. Blackmore, Josiah (2009). U of Minnesota Press, ed. Moorings: Portuguese Expansion and the Writing of Africa. pp. xvi, 18. ISBN 978-0-8166-4832-0. 
  8. European Commission, ed. (2010). "Assessment of the status, development and diversification of fisheries-dependent communities: Mazara del Vallo Case study report" (PDF). p. 2. Consultado o 28 de setembro de 2012. In the year 827, Mazara was occupied by the Arabs, who made the city an important commercial harbour. That period was probably the most prosperous in the history of Mazara. 

Véxase tamén[editar | editar a fonte]

Commons
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Bibliografía[editar | editar a fonte]

  • Jan R. Carew. Rape of Paradise: Columbus and the birth of racism in America. Brooklyn, NY: A&B Books, c. 1994.
  • David Brion Davis, "Slavery: White, Black, Muslim, Christian." New York Review of Books, vol. 48, #11 July 5, 2001. Do not have exact pages.
  • Herodotus, The Histories
  • Shomark O. Y. Keita, "Genetic Haplotypes in North Africa"
  • Shomarka O. Y. Keita, "Studies of ancient crania from northern Africa." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 83:35-48 1990.
  • Shomarka O. Y. Keita, "Further studies of crania from ancient northern Africa: an analysis of crania from First Dynasty Egyptian tombs, using multiple discriminant functions." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 87: 345-54, 1992.
  • Shomarka O. Y. Keita, "Black Athena: race, Bernal and Snowden." Arethusa 26: 295-314, 1993.
  • Bernard Lewis, "The Middle East".
  • Bernard Lewis. The Muslim Discovery of Europe. NY: Norton, 1982. Also an article with the same title published in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 20(1/3): 409-16, 1957.
  • Bernard Lewis, "Race and Slavery in Islam".
  • Stanley Lane-Poole, assisted by E. J. W. Gibb and Arthur Gilman. The Story of Turkey. NY: Putnam, 1888.
  • Stanley Lane-Poole. The Story of the Barbary Corsairs. NY: Putnam,1890.
  • Stanley Lane-Poole, The History of the Moors in Spain.
  • J. A. (Joel Augustus) Rogers. Nature Knows No Color Line: research into the Negro ancestry in the white race. New York: 1952.
  • Ronald Segal. Islam's Black Slaves: the other Black diaspora. NY: Farrar Straus Giroux, 2001.
  • Ivan Van Sertima, ed. The Golden Age of the Moor. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1992. (Journal of African civilizations, vol. 11).
  • Frank Snowden. Before Color Prejudice: the ancient view of blacks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1983.
  • Frank Snowden. Blacks in antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman experience. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970.
  • David M. Goldenberg. The Curse of Ham: race and slavery in early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, c2003.
  • Lucotte and Mercier, various genetic studies
  • Eva Borreguero. "The Moors Are Coming, the Moors Are Coming! Encounters with Muslims in Contemporary Spain." p. 417-32 in Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 2006, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 417–32.