Experimentos de laboratorio de especiación

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Unha simplificación dun experimento de especiación alopátrica onde se criaron dúas liñas de moscas Drosophila melanogaster sobre medios con maltosa e amidón.

Os experimentos de laboratorio de especiación son experimentos realizados sobre os catro modos de especiación: alopátrica, peripátrica, parapátrica e simpátrica; e outros procesos que implican especiación: a hibridación, reforzo, e efectos fundadores, entre outros. A maioría dos experimentos foron realizados con moscas, especialmente as moscas do vinagre Drosophila.[1] Porén, en estudos máis recentes testáronse lévedos, outros fungos e mesmo virus.

Suxeriuse que os experimentos de laboratorio non conducen a unha especiación vicariante (alopátrica e peripátrica) debido aos seus pequenos tamaños de poboación e limitado número de xeracións.[2] A maioría das estimacións de estudos da natureza indican que a especiación tarda de centos de miles a millóns de anos.[3] Por outra parte, crese que moitas especies se especiaron máis rápido e máis recentemente, como as sollas europeas Platichthys flesus, que desovan en zonas peláxicas e demersais, que se especiaron alopatricamente nunhas 3000 xeracións.[4]

Táboa de experimentos[editar | editar a fonte]

En seis publicacións intentouse compilar, revisar e analizar a investigación experimental en especiación: John Ringo, David Wood, Robert Rockwell e Harold Dowse en 1985;[5] William R. Rice e Ellen E. Hostert in 1993;[6] Ann-Britt Florin e Anders Ödeen en 2002;[2] Mark Kirkpatrick e Virginie Ravigné en 2002;[7] Jerry A. Coyne e H. Allen Orr in 2004;[1] e James D. Fry en 2009.[8] A táboa resume os estudos e datos revisados nestas publicacións. Tamén se referencias varios experimentos contemporáneos e a lista non é exhaustiva.

Na táboa que segue, os múltiples números separados por puntos e comas na columna das xeracións indican que se fixeron múltiples experimentos. As replicacións (entre parénteses) indican o número de poboacións utilizadas nos experimentos, é dicir, cantas veces se replicou o experimento. Impuxéronse varios tipos de selección ás poboacións experimentais e indícanse na columna de tipo de selección. Os resultados positivos ou negativos de cada experimento son proporcionados pola columna do illamento reprodutivo. O illamento reprodutivo precigótico significa que os individuos que se reproducían nas poboacións eran incapaces de producir descendencia (un resultado positivo, xa que se produciu illamento). O illamento reprodutivo postcigótico significa que os individuos reprodutores podían producir descendencia, pero era estéril ou inviable (un resultado positivo tamén). Os resultados negativos indícanse por "ningún", é dicir, eses experimentos non deron como resultado un illamento reprodutivo.

Experimentos de laboratorio de especiación[1][2][6][7][8]
Especie Carácter Xeracións (replicacións) [duración] Testado Tipo de selección Deriva xenética estudada Illamento reprodutivo Referencia Ano
Drosophila melanogaster Resposta de escape 18 Vicariante, reforzo, parapátrica/

simpátrica

Indirecta; diverxente Si Precigótico Grant & Mettler[9] 1969
D. melanogaster Locomoción 112 Vicariante Indirecta; diverxente Non Precigótico Burnet & Connolly[10] 1974
D. melanogaster Temperatura, humidade 70–130 Vicariante Indirecta; diverxente Si Precigótico Kilias et al.[11] 1980
D. melanogaster Adaptación ao DDT 600 [25 anos, +15 anos] Vicariante Directa Non Precigótico Boake et al.[12] 2003
D. melanogaster 17, 9, 9, 1, 1, 7, 7, 7, 7 Vicariante; parapátrica/

simpátrica

Directa, diverxente Precigótico en vicariancia; ningún con fluxo xénico Barker & Karlsson[13] 1974
D. melanogaster 40; 50 Reforzo Directa; diverxente Precigótico Crossley[14] 1974
D. melanogaster Locomoción 45 Vicariante Directa; diverxente Non Ningún van Dijken & Scharloo[15][16] 1979
D. melanogaster Reforzo Directa; diverxente Precigótico Wallace[17] 1953
D. melanogaster 36; 31 Reforzo Directa; diverxente Precigótico Knight[18] 1956
D. melanogaster Adaptación ao EDTA 25, 25, 25, 14 Semialopátrica, reforzo Indirecta; diverxente Non Postcigótico Robertson[19][20] 1966
D. melanogaster 25 (8) Vicariante; reforzo; parapátrica; simpátrica Directa Ningún Hostert[21] 1997
D. melanogaster Quetas abdominais

número

21–31 Vicariante Directa Si Ningún Santibanez & Waddington[22] 1958
D. melanogaster Número de quetas esternopleurais 32 Vicariante, reforzo, parapátrica/

simpátrica

Directa Non Ningún Barker & Cummins[23] 1969
D. melanogaster Fototaxe, xeotaxe 20 Vicariante Non Ningún Markow[24][25] 1975; 1981
D. melanogaster Peripátrica Si Rundle et al.[26] 1998
D. melanogaster Vicariante; peripátrica Si Mooers et al.[27] 1999
D. melanogaster 12 Reforzo Diverxente Precigótico Thoday & Gibson[28] 1962
D. melanogaster Ningún Thoday & Gibson[29][30] 1970; 1971
D. melanogaster 16 Reforzo Indirecta Ningún Spiess & Wilke[31] 1954
D. melanogaster Reforzo Directa; diverxente Precigótica Ehrman[32][33][34][35] 1971; 1973; 1979; 1983
D. melanogaster Número de quetas esternopleurais 5; 27; 27; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1 Parapátrica/

simpátrica

Ningún Chabora[36] 1968
D. melanogaster Ningún Scharloo[37] 1967
D. melanogaster 1, 1 Coyne & Grant[38] 1972
D. melanogaster 25 Rice[39] 1985
D. melanogaster 25 Disruptiva Precigótico Rice & Salt[40] 1988
D. melanogaster 35; 35 Simpátrica Precigótico Rice & Salt[41] 1990
D. melanogaster Niveis na comida de NaCl e CuSO4 [3 anos en alopatría, 1 en simpatría] Alopátrica; reforzo; simpátrica Precigótico en alopatría, ningún en simpatría Wallace[42] 1982
D. melanogaster Reforzo Ehrman et al.[43] 1991
D. melanogaster Reforzo Fukatami & Moriwaki[44] 1970
Drosophila simulans Quetas escutelares, velocidade do desenvolvemento, anchura das ás; resitencia ao desecamento, fecundidade, resistencia ao etanol; exhibición de cortexo, velocidade de reapareamento, comportamento de lek; altura da pupación, posta de ovos amontoados, actividade xeral [3 anos] Vicariante; peripátrica Si Poscigótico Ringo et al.[5] 1985
Drosophila paulistorum 131; 131 Reforzo Directa Precigótico Dobzhansky et al.[45] 1976
D. paulistorum [5 anos] Vicariante Dobzhansky and Pavlovsky[46] 1966
Drosophila willistoni Adaptación ao pH 34–122 Vicariante Indirecta; diverxente Non Precigótico Kalisz & Cordeiro[47] 1980
Drosophila pseudoobscura Fonte de carbohidratos 12 Vicariante Indirecta Si Precigótico Dodd[48] 1989
D. pseudoobscura Adaptación á temperatura 25–60 Vicariante Directa Ehrman[49][50][51][52][53] 1964;

1969

D. pseudoobscura Fototaxe, xeotaxe 5–11 Vicariante Indirecta Non Precigótico del Solar[54] 1966
D. pseudoobscura Vicariante; peripátrica Precigótico Powell[55][56] 1978; 1985
D. pseudoobscura Peripátrica; vicariante Si Galiana et al.[57] 1993
D. pseudoobscura Fotoperíodo de temperatura; alimento 37 (78) [33–34 meses] Vicariante Diverxente Si Ningún Rundle[58] 2003
D. pseudoobscura &

Drosophila persimilis

22; 16; 9 Reforzo Directa; diverxente Precigótico Koopman[59] 1950
D. pseudoobscura &

D. persimilis

18 (4) Directa Precigótico Kessler[60] 1966
Drosophila mojavensis 12 Directa Precigótico Koepfer[61] 1987
D. mojavensis Tempo de desenvolvemento 13 Diverxente Si Ningún Etges[62] 1998
Drosophila adiastola Peripátrica Si Precigótico Arita & Kaneshiro[63] 1974
Drosophila silvestris Peripátrica Si Ahearn[64] 1980
Musca domestica Xeotaxe 38 Vicariante Indirecta Non Precigótico Soans et al.[65] 1974
M. domestica Xeotaxe 16 Vicariante Directa; diverxente Non Precigótico Hurd & Eisenburg[66] 1975
M. domestica Peripátrica Si Meffert & Bryant[67] 1991
M. domestica Regan et al.[68] 2003
Bactrocera cucurbitae Tempo de desenvolvemento 40–51 Diverxente Si Precigótico Miyatake & Shimizu[69] 1999
Zea mays 6; 6 Reforzo Directa; diverxente Precigótico Paterniani[70] 1969
Drosophila grimshawi Peripátrica Jones, Widemo, & Arrendal[71] N/A
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Leu & Murry[72] 2006
D. melanogaster Reforzo Harper & Lambert[73] 1983
Tribolium castaneum Peso da pupa 15 (6) Disruptiva Halliburton & Gall[74] 1983
D. melanogaster Xeotaxe Diverxente Lofdahl et al.[75] 1992
D. pseudoobscura [10 anos] Moya et al.[76] 1995
Neurospora Diverxente Dettman et al.[77] 2008
S. cerevisiae 500 Diverxente Dettman et al.[78] 2007
Sepsis cynipsea 35 Martin & Hosken[79] 2003
D. melanogaster Wigby & Chapman[80] 2006
D. pseudoobscura Colflito sexual 48–52 (4; 4; 4) Bacigalupe et al.[81] 2007
D. serrata Rundle et al.[82] 2005
Drosophila serrata & D. birchii Recoñecemento de parella 9 (3; 3) Reforzo Natural Precigótico Higgie et al.[83] 2000
Enterobacteria phage λ Aproveitamento do receptor de Escherichia coli 35 ciclos (6) Vicariante, simpátrica Precigótico Meyer et al.[84] 2016
Tetranychus urticae Resistencia a toxina da planta hóspede Overmeer[85] 1966
T. urticae Resistencia a toxina da planta hóspede Fry[86] 1999
Helianthus annus × H. petiolaris e H. anomalus Híbrida Rieseburg et al.[87] 1996
S. cerevisiae Greig et al.[88] 2002
D. melanogaster Historia vital Ghosh & Joshi[89] 2012
Drosophila subobscura Comportamento de apareamento Bárbaro et al.[90] 2015
Organismos dixitais ~42,000; ~850 (20) Ecolóxico Postcigótico Anderson & Harmon[91] 2014
Schizosaccharomyces pombe Illamento reprodutivo completo Seike et al.[92] 2015
D. pseudoobscura Canción de cortexo 130 Debelle et al.[93] 2014
Callosobruchus maculatus 40 (16) Debelle et al.[94] 2010

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

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