Diferenzas entre revisións de «Wikipedia:Ligazóns mortas»

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===Servizos de arquivo web===
Outro método para previr as ligazóns mortas é o uso de servizos de arquivo web. Os dous servizos deste tipo máis populares e habitualmente empregados son [[Wayback Machine]], e [[WebCite]]. Estos servizos recollen e preservan páxinas web para uso futuro aínda cando a web orixinal deixa de estar dispoñible ó trasladarse, modificarse ou borrarse. O arquivo web resulta especialmente importante ó [[WP:CITA|citar]] páxinas webs que sexan pouco estables ou propensas a cambios, como webs de novas puntuais ou páxinas mantidas por organizacións con problemas económicos. Unha vez obtida a URL da versión arquivada da páxina web, usa os parámetros {{para|url-arquivo}} e {{para|data-arquivo}} no [[Modelo:Modelos de citas|modelo de citas]] empregado para indicala. O modelo incorporará automáticamente a ligazón arquivada na referencia:
A second way to prevent link rot is to use a [[web archiving]] service. The two most popular services are the [[Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine|Wayback Machine]], which crawls and archives many web pages as well as having a form to suggest a URL to be archived,<ref name="ia_form" group="note">Using the web form at https://archive.org, enter a URL and click "browse history". This will either redirect to show the latest previously archived copy, present a box near the bottom of the page with a link inviting the user to "save this URL in the Wayback Machine", display a calendar showing the extent of previously archived content for that URL, or show an error message explaining why the URL cannot be archived. If archiving is attempted and ultimately successful, the archived copy usually becomes available within minutes.<br/>
Alternately, you can use the bookmarklets listed at [[Wikipedia:Citing sources/Further considerations#Archiving bookmarklets]]. The bookmarklets enable you to cause the page that you are viewing to be archived with a single click. A new tab will open with the progress of the archiving without disturbing the tab you are using to view the to-be-archived page. Bookmarklets are available for both Archive.org (the Wayback Machine) and WebCite.</ref> and [[Wikipedia:Using WebCite|WebCite]], which provides on-demand web archiving. These services collect and preserve web pages for future use even if the original web page is moved, changed, deleted, or placed behind a [[pay wall]]. Web archiving is especially important when [[WP:Citing sources|citing]] web pages that are unstable or prone to changes, like time sensitive [[news]] articles or pages hosted by financially distressed organizations. Once you have the URL for the archived version of the web page, use the <code>archiveurl=</code> and <code>archivedate=</code> parameters in the [[Wikipedia:Citation templates|citation template]] that you are using. The template will automatically incorporate the archived link into reference.
*{{cite web |url=http://www.freakonomics.com/2008/01/24/wall-street-journal-paywall-sturdier-than-suspected/ |title=Wall Street Journal Paywall Sturdier Than Suspected |last=Dubner |first=Stephen J. |publisher=The New York Times Company |date=January 24, 2008 |accessdate=2009-10-28}}
*{{cite web |url=http://www.freakonomics.com/2008/01/24/wall-street-journal-paywall-sturdier-than-suspected/ |title=Wall Street Journal Paywall Sturdier Than Suspected |last=Dubner |first=Stephen J. |publisher=The New York Times Company |date=January 24, 2008 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110815224523/http://www.freakonomics.com/2008/01/24/wall-street-journal-paywall-sturdier-than-suspected/ |archivedate=2011-08-15 }}
However, not every web page can be archived. Webmasters and publishers may use a [[Robots exclusion standard]] in their domain to disallow archiving, or rely on complicated [[JavaScript]], [[Adobe Flash|Flash]], or other code that can't easily be copied. In these cases, alternate methods of preserving the data may be available.
 
<code><nowiki>{{cita web|url=http://www.freakonomics.com/2008/01/24/wall-street-journal-paywall-sturdier-than-suspected/ |título=Wall Street Journal Paywall Sturdier Than Suspected |apelidos=Dubner |nome=Stephen J. |editorial=The New York Times Company |data=24 de xaneiro de 2008 |data-acceso=28 de outubro de 2009|lingua=en}}</nowiki></code>
====Robots.txt====
*{{citecita web |url=http://www.freakonomics.com/2008/01/24/wall-street-journal-paywall-sturdier-than-suspected/ |titletítulo=Wall Street Journal Paywall Sturdier Than Suspected |lastapelidos=Dubner |firstnome=Stephen J. |publishereditorial=The New York Times Company |datedata=January 24, de xaneiro de 2008 |accessdate=2009-10data-acceso=28 de outubro de 2009|lingua=en}}
A quirk in the way the Wayback Machine operates means archived copies of sites sometimes become unavailable, for example, the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freakonomics#Freakonomics_blog Freakonomics blog] previously hosted at <code>freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com</code>. Those URLs were [https://web.archive.org/web/20130928002127/http://www.freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/robots.txt then] excluded from archiving by the New York Times' robots.txt file. This had the unfortunate effect of also rendering the previously archived content unavailable. But robots.txt changes can unhide that which previous changes have hidden, so do not delete an archiveURL solely because the archived content is currently unavailable. Luckily, in this case, not only can the content be found on a new site that is still open to archiving, but the site's robots.txt later [https://web.archive.org/web/20131217041219/http://freakonomics.com/robots.txt changed] to allow archiving again, and so the old archives are now unhidden ([https://web.archive.org/web/20070623110922/http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/ example]).
<code><nowiki>{{cita web |url=http://www.freakonomics.com/2008/01/24/wall-street-journal-paywall-sturdier-than-suspected/ |título=Wall Street Journal Paywall Sturdier Than Suspected |apelidos=Dubner |nome=Stephen J. |editorial=The New York Times Company |date=24 de xaneiro de 2008 |url-arquivo=https://web.archive.org/web/20110815224523/http://www.freakonomics.com/2008/01/24/wall-street-journal-paywall-sturdier-than-suspected/ |data-arquivo=15 de agosto de 2011|lingua=en}}</nowiki></code>
*{{citecita web |url=http://www.freakonomics.com/2008/01/24/wall-street-journal-paywall-sturdier-than-suspected/ |titletítulo=Wall Street Journal Paywall Sturdier Than Suspected |lastapelidos=Dubner |firstnome=Stephen J. |publishereditorial=The New York Times Company |date=January 24, de xaneiro de 2008 |archiveurlurl-arquivo=https://web.archive.org/web/20110815224523/http://www.freakonomics.com/2008/01/24/wall-street-journal-paywall-sturdier-than-suspected/ |archivedate=2011-08data-arquivo=15 de agosto de 2011|lingua=en}}
 
Porén, non todas as páxinas webs poden arquivarse. Os webmasters e editoriais poden usar un estándar de exclusión de robots no seu dominio que non permite este arquivo, ou basearse en [[JavaScript]], [[Adobe Flash|Flash]] ou outros códigos complexos que non resultan doados de copiar. Nestes casos poden existir métodos alternativos para preservar os datos.
 
===Métodos alternativos===

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