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Imogen Holst[editar | editar a fonte]

Imogen Holst
Nacemento12 de abril de 1907
 Richmond, Surrey (Inglaterra)
Reino Unido Reino Unido
Falecemento9 de marzo de 1984 (76 anos)
 Aldeburgh, Suffolk (Inglaterra)
Reino Unido Reino Unido
Instrumento(s)Piano
PremiosCBE
Membro honorífico da Royal Academy of Music
imogenholst.org

Imogen Clare Holst CBE, nada o 12 de abril de 1907 en Richmond, Surrey (Reino Unido) e finada o 9 de marzo de 1984) en Aldeburgh, Suffolk (Reino Unido, foi unha compositora, arranxista, directora de orquestra, profesora e administradora de festivais británica. Única filla do compositor británico Gustav Holst, é especialmente coñecida polo seu traballo educativo no Dartington Hall na década de 1940, e polos seus 20 anos como directora artística adxunta do Festival de Aldeburgh. Amais de compoñer música, escribiu biografías de compositores, elaborou numeroso material didáctico, e varios libros sobre a vida e a obra de seu pai.

Dende moi nova, Imogen Holst mostrou un talento precoz na composición e a interpretación. Logo de asistir á Eothen School e á St Paul's Girls' School, ingresou no Royal College of Music, onde desenvolveu as súas habilidades como directora de orquestra e gañou varios premios de composición. Incapaz por motivos de saúde de seguir as súas ambicións iniciais de ser pianista ou bailarina, Imogen pasou a maior parte da década de 1930 ensinando, e como organizadora a tempo completo da English Folk Dance and Song Society. Estes deberes reduciron as súas actividades compositivas, aínda que fixo moitos arranxos de pezas populares. Logo de exercer como organizadora do Counsello para o Fomento da Música e as Artes ao inicio da segunda guerra mundial, en 1942 comezou a traballar en Dartington. Nos seus nove anos alí estableceu en Dartington como un centro importante de educación e actividade musical.

A principios da década de 1950 Imogen converteuse na asistente musical de Benjamin Britten, trasladouse a Aldeburgh, e comezou a axudar coa organización do festival anual de Aldeburgh. En 1956 converteuse na directora artística do festival, e durante os seguintes 20 anos axudouno a acadar unha posición preeminente na vida musical británica. En 1964 renunciou como asistente de Britten, para retomar a súa propia carreira como compositora e concentrarse na preservación do legado musical de seu pai. A propia música de Imogen non é amplamente coñecida e recibiu pouca atención da crítica; boa parte dela é inédita e non se interpretou nunca. A primeira gravación adicada ás súas obras, realizada entre 2009 e 2012, foi calidamente recibida pola crítica. Foi nomeada CBE en 1975 e recibiu numerosos honores académicos. Morreu en Aldeburgh e está enterrada no seu camposanto.

Antecedentes[editar | editar a fonte]

Primeiros anos e familia[editar | editar a fonte]

A casa na que a familia Holst viviu en Barnes entre 1908 e 1913.

Imogen Holst naceu o 12 de abril de 1907 no número 31 de Grena Road, Richmond, unha cidade ribeireña ao oeste de Londres.[1] Seus pais eran Gustav Theodore Holst, un aspirante a compositor e que logo traballaría como profesor de música, e Isobel, de solteira Harrison. A familia Holst, de ascendencia sueca, alemá e letona, estaba en Inglaterra dende 1802 e foran músicos durante varias xeracións.[n 1] Gustav seguiu esta tradición familiar; mentres estudaba no Royal College of Music (RCM) coñeceu Isobel Harrison, que cantaba nun dos coros afeccionados que el dirixía. Inmediatamente sentiuse atraído por ela, e casaron o 22 de xullo de 1901.[3]

Mentres tentaba establecerse como compositor, Gustav Holst traballor primeiro como trombonista nunha orquestra, e logo como profesor. En 1907 ocupou postos docentes en James Allen's Girls' School en Dulwich, e St Paul's Girls' School (SPGS) en Hammersmith, onde foi director de música.[4] Tamén ensinou en clases nocturnas no Morley College, un centro de ensino para persoas adultas no distrito de Waterloo (Londres).[5] Pouco despois do nacemento de Imogen a familia trasladouse de Richmond a unha pequena casa ao lado do río na próxima Barnes, que alugaron a un familiar. Os principais recordos de Imogen desta casa eran de seu pai traballando no seu estudo do andar superior, ao que se lle prohibiu visitar, e dos seus esforzos por ensinarlle cancións populares.[6]

Estudios[editar | editar a fonte]

Gustav Holst en torno a 1921.

As descricións de Imogen de pequena indican que tiña os ollos azuis, pelo loiro, unha cara ovalada que lembra á de seu pai, e un nariz bastante prominente herdado de súa nai.[6] En 1912, aos cinco anos, uniuse á clase do xardín de infancia do Froebel Institute, e permaneceu na escola cinco anos. Pasaban as vacacións a miúdo na casa de campo alugada polos Holst en Thaxted (Essex), onde Gustav Holst comezou un festival anual de Pentecoste en 1916.[7]

En 1917 Imogen comezou a estudar en Eothen, unha pequena escola privada para nenas en Caterham,[8] onde Jane Joseph, a alumna estrela de Holst no SPGS, ensinoulle música. Nunha carta á súa casa, datada o 17 de xullo de 1917, fala da "comprensión, e excelentes premios, e fresas e crema para o té".[9] Na escola, Imogen estudou piano con Eleanor Shuttleworth, violín con André Mangeot (descrito como "excelente") e teoría con Jane Joseph ("estupenda") "topping"). Baixo a tutela de Joseph Imogen realizou as súas primeiras composicións —tres pezas instrumentais e algunha melodía de vilancicos de Nadal— ás que numerou como Ops. 1, 2, 3 e 4.[10] No verán de 1920, compuxo e fixo a coreografía da "Dance of the Nymphs and Shepherds", que foi representada na escola baixo a súa dirección o 9 de xullo.[11][n 2]

Imogen deixou Eothen en decembro de 1920 coa esperanza de estudar con Ruby Ginner na Ginner-Mawer School of Dance and Drama,[13] mais foi rexeitada porque probablemente carecía de resistencia para unha carreira na danza. Mentres estudaba na casa baixo unha gobernanta durante seis meses, no Pentecoste de 1921 participou como bailarina nunha produción da semiópera de Henry Purcell Dioclesian, unha versión ideada en boa parte por Joseph.[14][15][16]

En setembro de 1921 Imogen comezou a estudar na St Paul's Girls School. En xullo de 1922 interpretou un Preludio e Fuga de Bach ao piano, que Joseph alabou calidamente escribindo: "Creo que todo o mundo disfrutou do Bach dende o principio ata o final, todos aplaudiron ao seu final".[17] Os anos de Imogen na SPGS foron polo xeral ledos e exitosos. En xullo de 1923 gañou o Alice Lupton, un premio júnior para pianistas, mais súas posibilidades de distinción como pianista víronse afectadas cando comezou a desenvolver flebite no seu brazo esquerdo.[18][n 3] Entre outras actividades, interesouse pola música folklórica e a danza, e en 1923 converteuse en membro da English Folk Dance Society (EFDS). En 1924–25, o seu último ano na SPGS, Imogen fundou unha sociedade de danza folklórica na escola. Nun concerto escolar de fin de curso a finais de xullo de 1925, tocou o Chopin's étude in E major e estreou a Toccata de Gustav Holst.[20]

Royal College of Music[editar | editar a fonte]

O Royal College of Music.

Aínda que destinada como seu pai ao RCM, Imogen primeiro pasou un ano estudando composición con Herbert Howells e piano con Adine O'Neill, mentres por outra banda ocupouse coas actividades da EFDS.[21] Comezou no RCM en setembro de 1926, estudando piano con Kathleen Long, composición con George Dyson, e dirección de orquestra con W. H. Reed. As súas aptitudes como directora foi evidente en decembro de 1926, cando dirixiu a Terceira Orquestra do conservatorio no primeiro movemento sa Sinfonía "Praga" de Mozart.[22] Esta e outras interpretacións no podio levaron a The Daily Telegraph a especular con que Imogen podería converterse na primeira muller en "establecer unha permanencia firme na plataforma do director".[23]

No seu segundo ano no RCM Imogen concentrouse na composición, producindo varias obras de cámara, incluindo unha sonata para violín, un quinteto para óboe, e unha siute para madeiras. Deu os seus primeiros pasos cara á independencia persoal cando se trasladou da casa familiar a unha habitación próxima a Kensington Gardens.[24] En 1928 viaxou a Bélxica coa EFDS, tomou unhas vacacións en Italia, e fixo unha longa viaxe por Alemaña cun grupo coñecido como "The Travelling Morrice" que promoveu o entendemento internacional a través da música e a danza.[24] En outubro de 1928 gañou o premio Cobbett do RCM por unha composición camerística orixinal, o seu cuarteto Phantasy, e pouco despois gañou a Morley Scholarship para a "mellor estudante".[25] O cuarteto foi retransmitido pola BBC o 20 de marzo de 1929,[26] mais para ela, o logro foi eclipsado polas noticias da morte prematura da súa mentora Jane Joseph ese mes.[27][28]

No inverno de 1929 Imogen realizou a súa primeira visita ao Canadá e os Estados Unidos, como parte dunha celebración da EFDS.[29] De volta na casa, traballou na súa composición final para o RCM, unha suite para metais titulada The Unfortunate Traveller.[25] A pesar de certa aprensión pola súa parte, a obra superou o escrutino dos examinadores e foi interpretada no concerto de final de curso do conservatorio en xullo.[n 4] Imogen obtivo o seu diploma ARCM, e soubo tamén que lle concederan unha Octavia Travelling Scholarship que lle permitiría estudar composición no estranxeiro.[31]

Carreira[editar | editar a fonte]

Viaxes por Europa, 1930–31[editar | editar a fonte]

Imogen pasou a maior parte do período comprendido entre setembro de 1930 e maio de 1931 viaxando. A unha breve visita a Liexa en setembro seguiulle inmediatamente unha viaxe de tres meses por Escandinavia, Alemaña, Austria e Hungría, regresando a Inglaterra vía Praga, Dresde, Leipzig, Berlín e Amsterdam. A súa "orxía de experiencias musicais" incluíron unha peregrinación mozartiana a Salzburgo, representacións de Der Rosenkavalier e Die Entführung aus dem Serail na Ópera Estatal de Viena, Bach en Berlín e a Sétima de Mahler en Amsterdam.[32] O 1 de febreiro de 1932 partiu de novo, desta vez a Italia. Logo dunha viaxe de dous meses Imogen regresou a casa con cunha visión mixta da música italiana. Ela concluíu que "os italianos son unha nación de cantantes ... Mais a música é unha linguaxe diferente nesta parte do mundo". De volta en Londres, decidiu que a pesar das súas experiencias, "se é música o que un quere, non hai lugar coma Londres".[33][34]

Principalmente na ensinanza, 1931–38[editar | editar a fonte]

Cecil Sharp House, sede londinense da English Folk Dance and Song Society.

Cos seus fondos de bolsas de estudos esgotados, Imogen precisaba dun traballo, e en xuño de 1931 fíxose cargo da música no centro de artes e ensinanza Citizen House en Bath.[n 5] Non lle gustaba a disciplina imposta por un superior antipático e inflexible, e só permaneceu alí uns poucos meses.[36] Logo traballou como directora independente e pianista acompañante antes de unirse ao persoal da EFDS a principios de 1932. A organización expandírase ata converterse na "English Folk Dance and Song Society" (EFDSS) e estaba localizada na súa nova sede en Cecil Sharp House.[n 6] Os deberes, principalmente a ensinanza, non eran a tempo completo, e puido coller traballos a tempo parcial ensinando na súa antiga escola, Eothen, e en Roedean School.[39] Aínda que compuxo pouca música orixinal durante eses anos, realizou moitos arranxos instrumentais e vocais de melodías folclóricas tradicionais.[40]

A saúde de Gustav Holst fora pobre durante anos; no inverno de 1933-34 deteriorouse, e morreu o 25 de maio de 1934. Imogen determiou en privado que protexería o legado musical de seu pai, e comezou a traballar na súa biografía. Mentres tanto a súa propia música comezou a chamar a atención. O seu arranxo do vilancico "Nowell and Nowell" foi interpretado nun concerto de Nadal en 1934 na catedral de Chichester, e o ano seguinte viu a estrea do seu concerto para violín e cordas, con Elsie Avril como solista e a propia Imogen dirixindo a Orquestra Filharmónica de Londres.[41] En 1936 fixo unha visita a Hollywood, onde se quedou co seu tío (o irmán de Gustav), o actor Ernest Cossart. Un punto culminante desta visita foi un concerto de Wagner no Hollywood Bowl, dirixido por Otto Klemperer.[42] De volta en Inglaterra, Imogen traballou en arranxos para frauta de bico do descoidado compositor do século XVI Pelham Humphrey. Estes foron publicados en 1936 cunha entusiasta recepción da crítica. A biografía de seu pai foi publicada en 1938;[43] entre numerosos homenaxes, o compositor Edmund Rubbra eloxiouna por ter feito un libro que non estaba "nublado polo sentimento ... a súa biografía é á vez íntima e obxectiva".[44]

Guerra: viaxando para o CEMA[editar | editar a fonte]

Un concerto do CEMA durante a segunda guerra mundial (unha representación de Petia i volk de Prokofev polo Ballet Rambert).

En 1938 Imogen decidiu abandonar a música amateur e a ensinanza para concentrarse na seu propio desenrolo profesional. Renunciou o seu posto na EFDSS mentres continuaba a cos compromisos existentes coa organización. Renunciara ao seu traballo en Roedean en 1936; en Pascua de 1939 renunciou a Eothen. En xuño de 1939 comezou unha xira por Suíza que incluíu ao Festival de Lucerna. Contra finais de agosto, cando a guerra fíxose máis probable, interrompeu a viaxe e regresou a casa.[45]

Logo do estalido da guerra o 3 de setembro de 1939, Imogen traballou para a Bloomsbury House Refugee Committee, que apoiou a músicos refuxiados de Alemaña e Austria internados baixo regulacións de emerxencia. En xaneiro de 1949 aceptou un posto baixo o esquema organizativo do Pilgrim Trust, para actuar como un dos seis "músicos viaxeiros", cuxo obxectivo era impulsar a moral animando as actividades musicais nas comunidades rurais. Imogen foi asignada para cubrir o oeste de Inglaterra, un área enorme que se extende dende Oxfordshire ata Cornualles. Cando o goberno estableceu o Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts (CEMA), a responsabilidade sobre os "músicos viaxeiros" pasou a este corpo.[46]|group= n}}

Con pouco apoio práctico do CEMA, os talentos organizativos de Imogen, segundo a súa amiga Ursula Vaughan Williams, "desenvolvéronse de xeito brillante".[19] De acordo cos relatos de Imogen, os seus deberes incluían dirixir bandas locais, dirixir ensaios de himnos cantados ("catorce mulleres moi vellas con sombreiros sentadas ao redor do bordo dunha escura, vacía caseta de folla de lata"), e organizar cantos para nenos evacuados. Organizou actuacións de grupos profesionais, e o que ela chamou festivais "drop-in-and-sing" nos que calquera podía participar. Imogne tamén escribe sobre os "días idílicos" que pasou sobre tazas de té, debatindo as esperanzas e soños dos aspirantes a creadores musicais.[47] A súa actividade compositiva durante eses anos estivo limitada polo tempo e as presións do traballo, mais produciu dous tríos para frauta de bico —as suites Offley e Deddington— e realizou numerosos arranxos de vilancicos e cancións tradicionais para coro feminino.[48] No verán de 1942 a carga de traballo e a burocracia concomitante era tal que estaba esgotada, e precisaba dun longo descanso.[49]

Dartington[editar | editar a fonte]

O edificio principal de Dartington

In 1938, Imogen had visited Dartington Hall, a progressive school and crafts community near Totnes in Devon, which had been founded in 1925 by Leonard and Dorothy Elmhirst.[50] In 1941–42, while travelling for CEMA in Devon and Cornwall, she was invited by the Elmhirsts to make her base at Dartington. In the summer of 1942, while recuperating there, she was persuaded by Christopher Martin, the centre's administrator, to resign her CEMA role and work at Dartington.[51] He had in mind a music course, "the sort of thing that your father did in the old days at Morley College".[52] Beginning in 1943, Imogen established a one-year course, initially designed to train young women to organise amateur orchestras and musical events in rural communities. Gradually it developed into a more general musical education for a broader student intake. Under Imogen's leadership the course quickly became the hub of a range of musical activities, including the foundation of an amateur orchestra: "Hardly any of us could play ... However bad we were, we went on".[53] Imogen's teaching methods, heavily based on "learning by doing" and without formal examinations, at first disconcerted her students and puzzled the school inspectors, but eventually gained acceptance and respect.[54] Rosamond Strode, a pupil at Dartington who later worked with Imogen at Aldeburgh, said of her approach: "She knew exactly how, and when, to push her victims in at the deep end, and she knew, also, that although they would flounder and splash about at first, it wouldn't be long before ... they would be swimming easily while she beamed approval from the bank".[55]

In the conducive atmosphere of Dartington Imogen resumed serious composition, largely abandoned during the hectic CEMA years. In 1943 she completed a Serenade for flute, viola and bassoon, a Suite for String Orchestra, and a choral work, Three Psalms. All these works were performed at a Wigmore Hall concert on 14 June 1943 devoted to her music. Other compositions from the Dartington years included Theme and Variations for solo violin, String Trio No. 1 (premiered by the Dartington Hall String Trio at the National Gallery on 17 July 1944), songs from the 16th-century anthology Tottel's Miscellany, an oboe concerto, and a string quartet.[48][56] In October 1943 the composer Benjamin Britten and the tenor Peter Pears gave the first of several recitals at Dartington. A mutual respect and friendship developed between Britten and Imogen, strengthened by their shared love of neglected music from the Renaissance and Baroque eras.[57]

From 1945, while maintaining her commitment to Dartington, Imogen began to widen her musical activities. As well as editing and preparing scores for Britten, she promoted Dartington as the base for Britten's new English Opera Group, although eventually Glyndebourne was preferred.[58] In 1947 she encouraged the refugee violinist Norbert Brainin to form his own string quartet,[59] and arranged its debut at Dartington, as the "Brainin Quartet", on 13 July 1947. Six months later, renamed the Amadeus Quartet, the group appeared at the Wigmore Hall, and went on to worldwide recognition.[60] In 1948 she began work on a critical study of her father's music, a companion volume to her 1938 Holst biography.[61] When this was published in 1951, most critics praised its objectivity, one critic venturing that she had been "unnecessarily harsh" in her judgements.[62]

Rising standards of achievement at Dartington enabled Imogen to organise performances of more demanding works, such as Bach's Mass in B minor in July 1950 to honour the 200th anniversary of Bach's death. Three years in preparation, this endeavour brought a tribute from one of the audience: "I don't know, and can't imagine what the music of heaven is like. But when we all get there, please God, if any conducting is still necessary I hope your services will be required and that I will be in the chorus".[59] By the middle of 1950 Imogen's professional focus was changing. She had attended the first two Aldeburgh Festivals in 1948 and 1949, and in 1950 accepted a commission to provide a choral work for performance at the 1951 festival.[63] Sensing that it was time to leave Dartington, she gave a year's notice, part of which was spent on sabbatical, studying Indian music at Rabindranath Tagore's university in West Bengal.[64] A fruit of this visit was her Ten Indian Folk Tunes for recorder.[65] On 21 July 1951 her one-act opera, Benedick and Beatrice, was performed at Dartington, to mark her departure.[62]

Aldeburgh[editar | editar a fonte]

Without definite plans for her future after Dartington, Imogen toured Europe, collecting music that she would later edit for performance, including madrigals by Carlo Gesualdo which she found "very exciting".[66] At home, although not formally employed by Britten, she worked with him on several projects, including a new performing version of Purcell's Dido and Aeneas[67] and the preparation of the vocal and full scores for Britten's opera Billy Budd.[66] Pears, who had observed Imogen's overall contributions to musical life at Dartington, believed she could help Britten and the Aldeburgh Festival on a more formal basis, and shortly after the 1952 festival Britten invited her to come and work with him. She agreed, and in September 1952 moved to lodgings in Aldeburgh.[68]

Assistant to Britten[editar | editar a fonte]

Benjamin Britten, photographed in the mid-1960s

When Imogen joined Britten, the financial arrangement was vague; Britten paid her on a piecemeal basis rather than a regular salary, unaware that she had made over her rights to her father's estate to her mother and had little money of her own. As a result, she lived very frugally in Aldeburgh, but her commitment to Britten overrode her own physical comfort.[69] For the next dozen years her life was organised around the joint objectives of assisting Britten and developing the Aldeburgh Festival. Although she temporarily put her own compositional ambitions aside,[70] she did not abandon all other activities. She made many choral and vocal arrangements, promoted her father's music, and wrote books, articles and programme notes.[n 7]

For the first 18 months of her association with Britten, Imogen kept a diary which, Grogan says, forms a record of her "unconditional belief in Britten's achievement and status, and her absolute devotion to his work".[70] The first of Britten's works to which she made a significant contribution was the opera Gloriana, scheduled to form part of the 1953 Coronation celebrations. The short timescale for the writing of the opera placed considerable pressure on the composer and his new assistant,[73] strains that were dramatised 60 years later in a radio play, Imo and Ben.[n 8] Imogen's main task with Gloriana was to copy Britten's pencil sketches and prepare the vocal and piano scores which the singers needed for rehearsals by February 1953.[73][75] Later she assisted him with the writing of the full orchestral score,[76] and performed similar services with his next opera, The Turn of the Screw (1954).[77] When Britten was under pressure during the composition of his ballet The Prince of the Pagodas (1956), Imogen accompanied him to Switzerland, to remain by his side as he completed the work.[78][n 9] Imogen took great pleasure in her association with Britten's opera for children, Noye's Fludde (1957), for which she showed Britten how to achieve a unique raindrop effect by hitting a row of china mugs with a wooden spoon.[80] She and Britten combined to collect and publish music for the recorder, in a series published by Boosey and Hawkes (1954–59),[65] and jointly wrote a popular introductory book, The Story of Music (1958).[81]

Imogen assisted Britten with all his major compositions until 1964.[82] At that point, conscious of time passing, she determined to give priority to the final securing of her father's musical legacy, and to re-establish her credentials as a composer. She relinquished her post as Britten's assistant to Rosamund Strode, although she did not leave Aldeburgh or break with Britten, continuing her work with the Aldeburgh Festival for a further 13 years.[83]

Artistic director[editar | editar a fonte]

From the time of her arrival in Aldeburgh Imogen gave considerable support and assistance to the Aldeburgh Festival, as a conductor and, from 1953, increasingly as a planner and organiser.[84] In 1956 her position was formalised, and she joined Britten and Pears as one of the festival's artistic directors, taking responsibility for programmes and performers.[85] At the 1956 festival she fulfilled a long-held ambition by arranging a performance of Gustav Holst's opera Savitri,[86] the first of several Holst works that she introduced to the festival.[n 10] Savitri was offered as part of a double bill that included Imogen's arrangement of John Blow's 17th century opera Venus and Adonis.[86][88] In 1957 she instituted late-night concerts devoted to early music, and in 1962 she organised a series of evening concerts of Flemish music, in which she had more recently become interested.[89] She also devised frequent programmes devoted to church music, for performance at Aldeburgh parish church.[90] Since moving to Aldeburgh in 1952, Imogen had lived in a series of lodgings and rented flats. In 1962 she moved to a small contemporary bungalow built for her in Church Walk, where she lived for the rest of her life.[n 11]

In 1964, after giving up her role as Britten's assistant, Imogen began composing again, and in 1965 accepted commissions for two large-scale works: The Sun's Journey, a cantata for female voices, and the Trianon Suite, composed for the Trianon Youth Orchestra of Ipswich.[92] In 1965 and 1966 she published two books, studies of Bach and Britten. The latter work caused ill feelings among several key figures in Britten's earlier career with whom he had subsequently fallen out, such as his former librettists Eric Crozier and Ronald Duncan, whose contributions to Britten's success were ignored in the book.[93][94] Between 1966 and 1970 Imogen recorded a number of her father's works with the Purcell Singers and the English Chamber Orchestra, under the Argo and Lyrita labels.[95][96][97] Among these recordings was the Double Violin Concerto for which, forty years earlier, she had acted as the rehearsal pianist before the first performance.[98]

The concert hall at Snape Maltings, home of the Aldeburgh Festival from 1967

Imogen had formed the Purcell Singers, a small semi-professional choir, in October 1952, largely at the instigation of Pears.[99][100] From 1954 the choir became regular performers at the Aldeburgh Festival, with programmes ranging from rarely heard medieval music to 20th-century works.[64][101] Among choir members who later achieved individual distinction were the bass-baritone John Shirley-Quirk, the tenors Robert Tear and Philip Langridge, and the founder and conductor of the Heinrich Schütz Choir, Roger Norrington.[102][103] Langridge remembered with particular pleasure a performance in Orford church of Thomas Tallis's forty-part motet Spem in alium, on 2 July 1963.[104] When she gave up the conductorship of the choir in 1967, much of its musical mission, in particular its commitment to early music, was assumed by other groups, such as Norrington's Schütz Choir and the Purcell Consort formed by the ex-Purcell Singers chorister Grayston Burgess.[105]

On 2 June 1967 Imogen shared the podium with Britten in the concert inaugurating the Aldeburgh Festival's new home at the Snape Maltings.[n 12] From 1972 Imogen was involved with the development of educational classes at the Maltings, which began with weekend singing classes and developed into the Britten-Pears School for Advanced Musical Studies, with its own training orchestra.[106] By this time Imogen's performances at the festival had become increasingly rare, but in 1975 she conducted a concert of Gustav Holst's brass band music, held outdoors at Framlingham Castle. A report of the event described an evening of "persistent drizzle ... until a diminutive figure in a special scarlet dress took the conductor's baton. The band was transformed, and played Holst's Suite as it has never been played before".[107]

Britten had been in poor health since undergoing heart surgery in 1973, and on 4 December 1976 he died.[108] Imogen was unsure that she could maintain a working relationship with Pears alone, and on reaching the age of 70 decided she would retire as artistic director after the 1977 festival. That year she made her final festival appearance as a performer when she stood in for the indisposed conductor André Previn at the Snape Maltings Training Orchestra's inaugural festival concert. On retirement, she accepted the honorary title of Artistic Director Emeritus.[109]

Later career[editar | editar a fonte]

Gustav Holst's centenary was celebrated in 1974, when Imogen published a revised biography in Faber's "Great Composers" series and a Thematic Catalogue of Gustav Holst's Music.[110] The centenary was the occasion for the publication of the first volume of a facsimile edition of her father's manuscripts, on which Imogen worked with the help of the composer Colin Matthews.[111] Three more facsimile volumes followed in the years up to 1983, at which point Imogen's own failing health led to the abandonment of the project.[112] As part of the 1974 centenary, Imogen negotiated performances of Savitri and The Wandering Scholar at Aldeburgh and Sadler's Wells, and helped to arrange exhibitions of Holst's life and works at Aldeburgh and the Royal Festival Hall.[110]

Apart from her books concerned with her father's life and works, Imogen continued to write on other aspects of music. In addition to numerous articles she published a short study of the Renaissance composer William Byrd (1972)[113] and a handbook for conductors of amateur choirs (1973).[114] She continued to compose, usually short pieces but with occasional larger-scale orchestral works such as the Woodbridge Suite (1970) and the Deben Calendar (1977), the latter a series of twelve sketches depicting the River Deben in Suffolk at different phases of the year.[115] Her last major composition was a String Quintet, written in 1982 and performed in October of that year by the Endellion Quartet, augmented by the cellist Steven Isserlis.[116]

In April 1979 Imogen was present when the Queen Mother opened the new Britten–Pears School building in Snape. The building included a new library—the Gustav Holst Library—to which Imogen had donated a large amount of material, including books which her father had used in his own teaching career.[117] She had intended that, after 1977, her retirement from the Aldeburgh Festival would be total, but she made an exception in 1980 when she organised a 70th birthday celebration concert for Pears.[116]

Death[editar | editar a fonte]

Shortly after the 1977 Aldeburgh Festival, Imogen became seriously ill with what she described as "a coronary angina".[118] Thereafter, angina was a recurrent problem, although she continued to work and fulfill engagements. By early 1984 the deterioration in her health was noticeable to her friends. She died at home of heart failure on 9 March 1984 and was buried in Aldeburgh churchyard five days later in a plot next to Britten's.[119] An obituary tribute in the magazine Early Music emphasized her long association with music in the Aldeburgh church, where she "[brought] iridescently to life facets of that tradition to which her own life had been dedicated and which she presented as a continuing source of strength and wonder".[120] Ursula Vaughan Williams wrote: "Imogen had something of the medieval scholar about her ... content with few creature comforts if there was enough music, enough work, enough books to fill her days. Indeed, she always filled her days, making twenty-four hours contain what most of us need twice that time to do".[19]

In 2007, Imogen's centenary was recognized at Aldeburgh by several special events, including a recital in the parish church by the Navarra Quartet in which works by Purcell and Schubert were mixed with Imogen's own The Fall of the Leaf for solo cello, and the String Quintet. The latter work was described by Andrew Clements in The Guardian as "genuinely memorable ... The set of variations with which the quintet ends dissolves into a series of bare solo lines, linking Holst's music to her father's".[121]

Imogen never married, though she enjoyed a number of romantic friendships, notably with the future poet Miles Tomalin, whom she met when she was a pupil at St Pauls.[122] The two were close until 1929, and exchanged poetry;[123] Tomalin married in 1931.[124] Many years after the relationship ended, Imogen admitted to Britten that she would have married Tomalin.[124]

Honours[editar | editar a fonte]

Imogen was made a Fellow of the Royal College of Music in 1966. She was awarded honorary doctorates from the universities of Essex (1968), Exeter (1969), and Leeds (1983). She was given honorary membership of the Royal Academy of Music in 1970. In 1975 she was appointed a Companion of the Order of the British Empire (CBE).[64]

Music[editar | editar a fonte]

Imogen Holst was a part-time composer, intermittently productive within her extensive portfolio of musical activities. In her earlier years she was among a group of young British women composers—Elizabeth Maconchy and Elisabeth Lutyens were others—whose music was regularly performed and broadcast.[125] According to a later critic, her Mass in A of 1927 showed "confident and imaginative layering of voices, building to a satisfying Agnus Dei".[126] However, for long periods in her subsequent career Imogen barely composed at all. After the RCM, her most active years as a composer were at Dartington in the 1940s and the "post-Britten" period after 1964.[40] Her output of compositions, arrangements and edited music is extensive but has received only limited critical attention. Much of it is unpublished and has usually been neglected after its initial performance.[127][128]

{{{1}}}

The oeuvre comprises instrumental, vocal, orchestral and choral music. Early in her compositional career Imogen was primarily influenced, as Gustav Holst's daughter, by what the analyst Christopher Tinker terms "her natural and inescapable relationship with the English musical establishment", and by her close personal relationship with her father.[125] Some of her first compositions reflect the pastoralism of Ralph Vaughan Williams, who taught her at the RCM.[129] In her teaching and EFDSS years during the 1930s she became known for her folksong arrangements but composed little music herself.[40] The personal style that emerged in the 1940s incorporated her affinity with folksong and dance, her intense interest in English music of the 16th and 17th centuries, and her taste for innovation. In her 1930 suite for solo viola, she had begun experimenting with scale patterns; by the 1940s she was incorporating her own six- and eight-note scales into her chamber music and occasionally into choral works such as the Five Songs (1944).[40][129] This experimentation reappears in later works; in Hallo My Fancy (1972) a new scale is introduced for each verse, while the choir provides free harmonisation to a solo voice.[40] In Homage to William Morris (1984), among her final works, Tinker notes her use of dissonance "to add strength to the musical articulation of the text".[130] By contrast, the String Quintet of 1982, the work which Imogen herself thought made her "a real composer", is characterised by the warmth of its harmonies.[40][128]

Much of Imogen's choral music was written for amateur performance. Critics have observed a clear distinction in quality between these pieces and the choral works written for professional choirs, particularly those for women's voices. These latter pieces, says Tinker, incorporate her best work as an original composer.[131] Record companies were slow in recognising Imogen's commercial potential, and not until 2009 was a CD issued devoted entirely to her music—a selection of her works for strings. The Guardian's reviewer welcomed the recording: "[T]here is a great deal of English music of far less worth that is frequently praised to the skies".[132] In 2012 a selection of her choral music, sung by the Clare College Choir, was recorded by Harmonia Mundi.[133] One review of this recording picks out Welcome Joy and Welcome Sorrow, written for female voices with harp accompaniment, as "[giving] an insight into her own, softly nuanced, pioneering voice".[127] Another mentions the "Three Psalms" setting, where "inner rhythms are underscored by the subtle string ostinatos pulsing beneath".[126]

Published texts[editar | editar a fonte]

Publication details refer to the book's first UK publication.

  • Gustav Holst: A biography. London: Oxford University Press. 1938. OCLC 852118145.  (revised edition 1969)
  • The Music of Gustav Holst. London: Oxford University Press. 1951. OCLC 881989.  (revised editions 1968 and 1985, the latter with Holst's Music Reconsidered added)
  • The Book of the Dolmetsch Descant Recorder. London: Boosey & Hawkes. 1957. OCLC 221221906. 
  • The Story of Music ("The Wonderful World" series). London: Rathbone. OCLC 2182017.  (co-author with Benjamin Britten)
  • Heirs and Rebels: Letters Written to Each Other, and Occasional Writings on Music, by Ralph Vaughan Williams and Gustav Holst. London: Oxford University Press. 1959. OCLC 337514.  (co-editor with Ursula Vaughan Williams):
  • Henry Purcell, 1659–1695: Essays on his Music. London: Oxford University Press. 1959. OCLC 602569.  (editor)
  • Henry Purcell: the Story of his Life and Work. London: Boosey & Hawkes. 1961. OCLC 1200203. 
  • Tune. London: Faber & Faber. 1962. OCLC 843455729. 
  • An ABC of Music: a Short Practical Guide to the Basic Essentials of Rudiments, Harmony, and Form. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1963. ISBN 0-19-317103-1. 
  • Your Book of Music. London: Faber & Faber. 1964. OCLC 170598. 
  • Bach ("Great Composers" series). London: Faber & Faber. 1965. OCLC 748710834. 
  • Britten ("Great Composers" series). London: Faber & Faber. 1966. OCLC 243904447. 
  • Byrd ("Great Composers" series). London: Faber & Faber. 1972. ISBN 0-571-09813-4. 
  • Conducting a Choir: a Guide for Amateurs. London: Oxford University Press. 1973. ISBN 0-19-313407-1. 
  • Holst ("Great Composers" series). London: Faber & Faber. 1974. ISBN 0-571-09967-X.  (second edition 1981)
  • A Thematic Catalogue of Gustav Holst's Music. London: Faber Music, in conjunction with G & I Holst Ltd. 1974. ISBN 0-571-10004-X. 

Imogen Holst also wrote numerous articles, pamphlets, essays, introductions and programme notes during the period 1935–1984.[n 13]

References[editar | editar a fonte]

Notes

  1. O apelido da familia foi "von Holst" ata que Gustav mudouno en 1918, durante a primeira guerra mundial.[2]
  2. A música da danza "Nymphs and Shepherds" foi o Op. 4 de Imogen, orixinalmente titulada The Masque of the Tempest.[12]
  3. Nun tributo obituario, Ursula Vaughan Williams refírese ás condicións do brazo de Imogen como "herdada de seu pai".[19] De feito, Gustav Holst padecía de neurite no seu brazo dereito, unha condición igualmente incapacitante pero non relacionada.[18]
  4. En 1969, logo da morte de Isobel Holst, Imogen encontrou o manuscrito de The Unfortunate Traveller entre as posesións de súa nai. Para ela, a obra simbolizaba o que percibía como o seu fracaso como compositora, e insistiu en que se queimara o manuscrito.[30]
  5. A Citizen House fora fundada en 1916 por Helen Hope, como centro para o benestar social, a educación e as artes. Esta incluía un grupo de teatro os Citizen House Players, e finalmente un teatro con capacidade para 200 persoas.[35]
  6. A EFDSS creouse en marzo de 1932, logo de que a English Folk Dance Society, para a que Imogen traballara de xeito voluntario durante moitos anos, acordara fusionarse coa English Folk Song Society.[37][38]
  7. Books written by Imogen Holst in this period include The Book of the Dolmetsch Descant Recorder (1957);[65] Tune (1961);[71] and An ABC of Music (1963).[72]
  8. The play, by Mark Ravenhill, was broadcast on 30 June 2013.[74]
  9. Britten dedicated the ballet jointly to Imogen and Ninette de Valois.[79]
  10. In 1961 Imogen persuaded Britten to conduct Gustav Holst's tone-poem Egdon Heath, and the following year saw a performance of Ode to Death.[87]
  11. The house was built on the edge of the site where it had been hoped to build a Festival Theatre. When that plan was abandoned in favour of a move to Snape Maltings, the bungalow was built anyway by the architect H. T. Cadbury-Brown, who allowed Imogen to live there rent-free.[91]
  12. In 1969, just after the opening concert of that year's festival, the Maltings was destroyed by fire; it was rebuilt in time for the 1970 festival.[106]
  13. A partial list of articles and programme notes by Imogon Holst is included in the bibliography, pp. 464–65 within Grogan, Christopher (2010). Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 

Citations

  1. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 2
  2. "No. 30928". The London Gazette. 1 October 1918. 
  3. Holst, p. 29
  4. Matthews, Colin. "Holst, Gustav(us Theodore von)". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Consultado o 21 February 2014.  Modelo:Subscription
  5. Warrack, John. "Holst, Gustav Theodore (1874–1934)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Consultado o 22 March 2013. require subscrición
  6. 6,0 6,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 2–3
  7. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 6
  8. Gibbs, pp. 29–30
  9. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 7–8
  10. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 9–12
  11. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 15
  12. Tinker and Strode, p. 451.
  13. "Ruby Ginner (1886–1978)". Oxford Index. Oxford University Press. Consultado o 21 February 2014. 
  14. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 16–17
  15. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 25–26
  16. Holst, Gustav (April 1931). "Jane Joseph: A brief discussion of her published music". The Monthly Musical Record: 97–98. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  17. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 18–20
  18. 18,0 18,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 22–26
  19. 19,0 19,1 19,2 Vaughan Williams, Ursula (1984). "Obituary: Imogen Holst, 1907–84". Folk Music Journal 4 (5). JSTOR 4522176.  Modelo:Subscription
  20. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 29–32
  21. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 33–40
  22. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 41–42
  23. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 46
  24. 24,0 24,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 49–52
  25. 25,0 25,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 72
  26. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 60
  27. Gibbs, pp. 50–51
  28. Gibbs, Alan. "Joseph, Jane Marian". Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press. Consultado o 23 February 2014. 
  29. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 67–70
  30. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 394
  31. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 74–76
  32. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 79–90
  33. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 91–93
  34. Grogan, Christopher (17 October 2007). "Daughter of the renaissance". The Guardian. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  35. "Little Theatre with a big heart celebrates 70 years in Bath". The Bath Chronicle. 30 December 2008. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  36. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 97–99
  37. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", p. 100
  38. Keel, Frederick (December 1948). "The Folk Song Society 1898–1948". Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society 5 (3): 126. JSTOR 4521287.  Modelo:Subscription
  39. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 109–12
  40. 40,0 40,1 40,2 40,3 40,4 40,5 Tinker, Christopher. "Imogen Holst's Music 1962–64". Tempo (New Series) (166): 22–27. JSTOR 945906.  Modelo:Subscription
  41. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 114–18
  42. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 118–20
  43. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 124–25
  44. Edmund Rubbra in Monthly Musical Record, November 1938, quoted in Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 124–25
  45. Grogan and Strode, "Part II: 1931–52", pp. 126–28
  46. "The history of the Arts Council". Arts Council. Consultado o 4 March 2014. 
  47. Imogen Holst essay, first published in Making Music, October 1946, reproduced in Grogan and Strode, "Part II: 1931–52", pp. 129–32
  48. 48,0 48,1 Tinker and Strode, pp. 454–55
  49. Grogan and Strode, "Part II: 1931–52", pp. 136–37
  50. Cox and Dobbs, p. 31
  51. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", p. 138
  52. Cox and Dobbs, pp. 10–27
  53. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 139–40
  54. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", p. 145
  55. Rosamond Strode, in an unpublished typescript, quoted in Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 154–55
  56. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 141–42
  57. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 150–51
  58. Carpenter, pp. 226 and 236
  59. 59,0 59,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 146–48
  60. Potter, Tully. "Amadeus Quartet". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Consultado o 19 February 2014.  Modelo:Subscription
  61. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", p. 151
  62. 62,0 62,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 162–65
  63. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 155–57. The work was the song cycle for female voices and harp, Welcome Joy and Welcome Sorrow.
  64. 64,0 64,1 64,2 Strode, Rosamund. "Holst, Imogen Clare". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Consultado o 17 February 2014.  require subscrición
  65. 65,0 65,1 65,2 Tinker, p. 436
  66. 66,0 66,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part II: 1931–1952", pp. 167–70
  67. Bridcut, pp. 72–73
  68. Carpenter, p. 309
  69. Carpenter, p. 311
  70. 70,0 70,1 Grogan, "Part III: 1952–54", p. 176
  71. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 364–65
  72. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 374
  73. 73,0 73,1 Carpenter, pp. 306–09
  74. Rees, Jasper (28 June 2013). "Imo and Ben: a new radio drama that shows the tensions in Benjamin Britten's working life". The Telegraph. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  75. White, p. 79
  76. Carpenter, p. 317
  77. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 334–35
  78. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 348–49
  79. White, p. 82
  80. Carpenter, p. 382
  81. White, p. 86
  82. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 361–73
  83. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 374–75
  84. Grogan, "Part III: 1952–54", p. 157
  85. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 336
  86. 86,0 86,1 Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 345
  87. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 366–67
  88. Carpenter, p. 369
  89. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 352 and 367–68
  90. White, p. 65
  91. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 369
  92. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 384
  93. Carpenter, pp. 468–69
  94. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 382 and 387
  95. Stuart, Philip (June 2009). "Decca Classical 1929–2009" (PDF). AHRC Research Centre for the History and Analysis of Recorded Music. Consultado o 21 March 2014.  (Items 1383, 1395, 1419, 1518 and 1688)
  96. "Holst: Vocal Works". Presto Classical. Consultado o 17 February 2014. 
  97. "Holst: Vocal Works". Presto Classical. Consultado o 17 February 2014. 
  98. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 388 and 399
  99. Grogan, "Part III, 1952–54", pp. 188
  100. Grogan, "Part III, 1952–54", p. 317
  101. Tinker, Christopher. "Holst, Imogen Clare". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Consultado o 17 February 2014.  Modelo:Subscription
  102. Grogan , "Part IV, 1955–84", pp. 371–72
  103. Pratt, George. "Norrington, Sir Roger Arthur Carver". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music online. Consultado o 17 February 2014.  Modelo:Subscription
  104. Wake-Walker, p. 190
  105. Grogan, "Part IV, 1955–84", pp. 389–90
  106. 106,0 106,1 Goodwin, Noel. "Aldeburgh Festival". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Consultado o 1 March 2014.  Modelo:Subscription
  107. Wake-Walker, p. 193
  108. Carpenter, pp. 549 and 585
  109. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 414–16
  110. 110,0 110,1 Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 406–07
  111. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 404 and 410
  112. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 419–20 and 429
  113. "Byrd (Great Composers)". WorldCat. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  114. "Conducting a Choir: a guide for amateurs". WorldCat. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  115. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 396 and 419
  116. 116,0 116,1 Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 425
  117. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 422
  118. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 418–19
  119. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 427–30
  120. Thomson, John (November 1984). "Imogen Holst". Early Music 12 (4): 583–84. doi:10.1093/earlyj/12.4.583. 
  121. Clements, Andrew (23 October 2007). "A Celebration of Imogen Holst". The Guardian. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  122. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 27–28
  123. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 57–65
  124. 124,0 124,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 66
  125. 125,0 125,1 Tinker, pp. 434–35
  126. 126,0 126,1 "Album: Imogen Holst Choral Works". The Independent. 25 August 2012. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  127. 127,0 127,1 Maddocks, Fiona (26 August 2012). "Imogen Holst: Choral Works – review". The Observer. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  128. 128,0 128,1 Tinker, p. 448
  129. 129,0 129,1 Tinker, pp. 444–45
  130. Tinker, p. 443
  131. Tinker, p. 440
  132. Clements, Andrew (30 January 2009). "Imogen Holst: String Chamber Music: Court Lane Music". The Guardian. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  133. "Imogen Holst: Choral Works". Presto Classical. Consultado o 8 March 2014. 

Sources

  • Bridcut, John (2010). The Faber Pocket Guide to Britten. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-23776-0. 
  • Carpenter, Humphrey (1992). Benjamin Britten: A biography. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-14324-5. 
  • Cox, Peter; Dobbs, Jack (1988). Imogen Holst at Dartington. Dartington: Dartington Press. ISBN 0-902386-13-1. 
  • Gibbs, Alan (2000). "Chapter II: Jane Joseph". Holst Among Friends. London: Thames Publishing. ISBN 978-0-905210-59-9. 
  • Grogan, Christopher; Strode, Rosamund (2010). "Part I: 1907–31". Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 
  • Grogan, Christopher; Strode, Rosamund (2010). "Part II: 1931–52". Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 
  • Grogan, Christopher (2010). "Part III: 1952–54". Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 
  • Grogan, Christopher (2010). "Part IV: 1955–84". Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 
  • Holst, Imogen (1969). Gustav Holst (second ed.). London and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-315417-X. 
  • Tinker, Christopher (2010). "Part V: The Music of Imogen Holst". Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 
  • Tinker, Christopher; Strode, Rosamund (2010). "Chronological list of works". Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 
  • Wake-Walker, Jenni (compiler) (1997). Time and Concord: Aldeburgh Festival Recollections. Saxmundham, Suffolk: Autograph Books. ISBN 978-0-9523265-1-9. 
  • White, Eric Walter (1983). Benjamin Britten, His Life and Operas. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04893-8. 



Historia NJ Devils[editar | editar a fonte]

Kansas City e Colorado[editar | editar a fonte]

En 1972, a NHL anunciou os seus plans de sumar dous equipos de expansión máis á liga, incluíndo un en Kansas City, Misuri. Edwin G. Thompson dirixiu o grupo que adquirira o equipo, que foi chamado os Scouts en referencia a "unha estatua nun parque de Kansas City que foi representada no seu logo definitivo".[1] Na tempada inaugural do equipo, a 1974–75, os Scouts foron obrigados a esperar ata o novento partido da tempada para xogar no Kemper Arena de Kansas City, e non sumaron ningunha vitoria ata que derrotaron aos Washington Capitals, os seus compañeiros de expansión, no seu décimo partido.[2] Con 41 puntos na súa tempada inaugural, os Scouts finalizaron no último posto da Smythe Division; e tan só os Capitals conseguiron menos puntos que eles na NHL.[3] O equipo de Kansas City caeu ata os 36 puntos na tempada seguinte, e tiveron unha racha de 27 partidos perdidos.[4] Os Scouts tiveron dificultades para atraer afeccionados aos partidos, e o líder da National Hockey League Players' Association (NHLPA), Alan Eagleson, expresou publicamente as súas preocupacións sobre se os xogadores dos Scouts recibirían os seus salarios.[2]

Partido entre os Colorado Rockies e os Atlanta Flames en 1978.

Logo de dúas tempadas en Kansas City, a franquía trasladouse a Denver e foi renomeada Colorado Rockies,[5] xogando os seus partidos como local no McNichols Sports Arena. O equipo gañou o seu primeiro partido como Rockies por catro goles a dogs front aos Toronto Maple Leafs.[6] Os Rockies estaban en posicións de clasificación para os play-offs con 60 partidos xogados na tempada 1976–77, mais unha racha de 18 partidos sen gañar fixo que o equipo quedara fora das series polo título.[7] Os Rockies finalizaron a tempada na última posición da súa división cun rexistro de 20–46–14 e 54 puntos,[8] e melloraron ata os 59 puntos na tempada seguinte. A pesar de ter o sexto peor rexistro da Liga, os Rockies superaron por dous puntos aos Vancouver Canucks, conseguindo a segunda posición na Smythe Division, o que lles permitiu clasificarse para os play-offs.[9] Finalmente os Philadelphia Flyers eliminaron aos Rockies nos play-offs na rolda preliminar.[10]

A falta continua de estabilidade atormentou ao equipo. A franquía nunca gañou máis de 22 partidos e non regresou aos play-offs despois da tempada 1977–78 nas súas seis tempadas en Colorado.[11] Antes da tempada 1978–79, o equipo foi vendido ao magnate dos camiñons de Nova Jersey Arthur Imperatore, que pretendeu trasladar o equipo ao seu estado natal.[12] O plan foi criticado pola existenci de outros tres equipos da NHL na rexión, e porque o pavillón proposto en Nova Jersey aínda estaba en construción; finalmente a franquía permaneceu en Denver.[13][14] En 1979, o equipo contratou a Don Cherry como adestrador xefe e co destacado dianteiro Lanny McDonald. Os Rockies seguiron a ter o peor rexistro da NHL, o que provocou a súa saída do equipo despois da tempada.[15] Despois de dous anos en Denver, os Rockies foron vendidos a un grupo encabezado por John McMullen (que tamén posuía os Houston Astros da Major League Baseball) o 27 de maio de 1982, e a franquía trasladouse a Nova Jersey. Como parte do acordo de reubicación, os Devils tiveron que compensar aos tres equipos existentes na rexión – os New York Islanders, New York Rangers e Flyers – por invadir o seu territorio.[16]

Nova Jersey[editar | editar a fonte]

1982–1993: A construción dos alicerces[editar | editar a fonte]

O Demo de Jersey, a inspiración para o nome do equipo.

O 30 de xuño de 1982, o equipo foi renomeado como New Jersey Devils, pola lenda do Demo de Jersey, unha criatura que supostamente habitaba Pine Barrens en South Jersey. Máis de 10.000 persoas votaron nun concurso celebrado para seleccionar o nome.[17] O equipo comezou a xogar en East Rutherford no Brendan Byrne Arena, posteriormente renomeado Continental Airlines Arena e despois Izod Center, onde disputaron os seus partidos como locais ata a tempada 2006-07.[18][19] Os Devils foron inicialmente situados na Patrick Division. O seu primeiro partido finalizou cun empate (3-3) fronte aos Pittsburgh Penguins, e o primeiro gol do equipo en Nova Jersey foi anotado por Don Lever.[20] A primeira vitoria chegou en Nova Jersey, cando derrotaron 3-2 aos Rangers.[21] O equipo finalizou a liga regular cun rexistro de 17–49–14, situándose tan só tres puntos por riba da última posición da Patrick Division.[20]

Na tempada seguinte, os Devils foron criticados por Wayne Gretzky logo da súa derrota por 13–4 lfronte aos Edmonton Oilers. Nunha entrevista logo do partido, Gretzky dixo que os Devils estaban "poñendo unha operación Mickey Mouse no xeo".[22] Posteriormente, Gretzky dixo que o seu comentario fora "sacado de proporción". En resposta, moitos seareiros dos Devils vestiron roupa de Mickey Mouse cando os Oilers regresaron a Nova Jersey.[23] Also in the 1983–84 season, the Devils hosted the annual NHL All-Star Game. New Jersey's Chico Resch was the winning goaltender, and Devils defenseman Joe Cirella tallied a goal as the Wales Conference beat the Campbell Conference 7–6.[21] Overall, the team did not achieve much success. Head Coach Bill MacMillan was fired 20 games into the season, whereupon Tom McVie was named the new coach. The Devils won only 17 games and after the season, Doug Carpenter succeeded McVie.[24]

The Devils assembled a core of players that included John MacLean, Bruce Driver, Ken Daneyko, Kirk Muller and Pat Verbeek, with Resch as their goaltender.[25] Their record improved each season between 1983–84 and 1986–87. However, they were unable to reach the playoffs.[26] Despite their improvement, the Devils remained last in the Patrick Division in 1985–86 and 1986–87.[25] McMullen hired Providence College athletic director Lou Lamoriello as team president in April 1987.[27] To gain greater control over franchise operations, Lamoriello appointed himself general manager before the 1987–88 season.[28]

The 1987–88 Devils garnered the franchise's first winning record.[26] On the final day of the regular season, they were tied with their rivals, the Rangers, for the final playoff spot in the Patrick Division. After New York defeated the Quebec Nordiques 3–0, the Devils needed to defeat the Chicago Blackhawks for a post-season berth. The Devils were trailing 3–2 midway through the third period when John MacLean tied the game, and with 2:39 left in overtime, he added the winning goal. Although the Rangers and Devils both finished with 82 points, the Devils had two more wins, sending them to the playoffs for the first time in franchise history as the New Jersey Devils.[29][30] The team made it all the way to the Wales Conference Finals in the 1988 Stanley Cup playoffs, but lost to the Boston Bruins in seven games. In that series, Head Coach Jim Schoenfeld verbally abused referee Don Koharski after the third game, screaming at him. During the exchange, Koharski fell and Schoenfeld said to him "Have another doughnut, you fat pig!"[31] Schoenfeld was given a suspension by the NHL, but due to a favorable court order, he was able to coach in the fourth game of the series. In protest, referee Dave Newell and linesmen Gord Broseker and Ray Scapinello refused to work the game. Three off-ice officials – Paul McInnis, Jim Sullivan and Vin Godleski – were tracked down to work the game.[31]

The next season, the Devils once again slipped below .500 and missed the playoffs.[32] Among the post-season player changes Lamoriello made in the off-season was the signing of two Soviet stars – Viacheslav Fetisov and Sergei Starikov. The Devils drafted Fetisov years earlier in the 1983 Entry Draft, but the Soviet Government did not allow Fetisov, who was a member of the national team, to leave the country.[33] Shortly after, the Devils signed Fetisov's defense partner, Alexei Kasatonov.[34]

The team changed coaches midway through each of the next two seasons. Schoenfeld was replaced with John Cunniff in 1989–90, and Tom McVie was hired midway through the 1990–91 season and helmed the team through its third-straight first-round elimination in 1991–92.[26] Herb Brooks, who coached the 1980 U.S. Olympic "Miracle on Ice" team, was brought in for the 1992–93 season, but when the team yet again was eliminated in the first round, he was fired and replaced by former Montreal Canadiens Head Coach Jacques Lemaire.[35][36]

1993–2000: Franquía campioa[editar | editar a fonte]

Under Lemaire, the team played during the 1993–94 regular season with a lineup that included defensemen Scott Stevens, Scott Niedermayer and Ken Daneyko; forwards Stephane Richer, John MacLean, Bobby Holik and Claude Lemieux; and goaltenders Chris Terreri and Martin Brodeur, the latter goaltender was honored as the NHL's top rookie with the Calder Memorial Trophy.[36][37] The Devils scored 330 times in the regular season and set a franchise record with 106 points, second behind the New York Rangers in the Atlantic Division. The Devils and Rangers met in an Eastern Conference Finals match-up, which went seven games. Going into Game 6 in New Jersey, the Devils led the series three games to two. Before the game, Rangers captain Mark Messier guaranteed that the Rangers would win Game 6. Messier led his team back, netting a hat-trick to help the Rangers overcome an early 2–0 Devils lead and force a decisive content. In Game 7, the Devils' Valeri Zelepukin tied the score at 1–1 with 7.7 seconds remaining, but the Devils were defeated in double overtime on a goal by Stephane Matteau.[36]

Despite the setback, the team returned to the Eastern Conference Finals during the lockout-shortened 1994–95 season and defeated the Philadelphia Flyers four games to two.[38] They swept the heavily favored Detroit Red Wings to win New Jersey's first-ever Stanley Cup, as they brought the Cup across the Hudson River from New York, after the Rangers had won it the year before. The 1995 Devils team became the first to give the players a day with the Stanley Cup, a tradition that lives on with each Cup winner.[39] Claude Lemieux was awarded the Conn Smythe Trophy as playoffs MVP.[40] The success came amid constant rumors that the team would move for the third time in its history to Nashville.[41] Staring at the prospect of losing the team, the state agreed to fund a renovation of the Devils' arena.[42]

The Devils missed the playoffs by two points the following season, with a 37–33–12 record. They were beaten by the Tampa Bay Lightning for the last playoff spot in the East on the last day of the season, after a 5–2 loss to the Ottawa Senators in a must-win game.[43] It marked the first time in 26 years that a defending Cup champion failed to reach the playoffs.[44] For the remainder of the decade, the Devils won at least 45 games every season, but were unable to make a deep playoff run. Despite posting 104 points in the 1996–97 season and 107 in 1997–98,[26] they were ousted by the Rangers four games to one in the second round of the 1997 playoffs and in the first round by the Senators four games to two a year later.[45] Lemaire resigned after that season and was replaced by assistant Robbie Ftorek.[46] However, the next season ended as the previous one, with a first-round loss, this time to the Pittsburgh Penguins.[45]

O equipo dos Devils campión na tempada 1999–2000 gravado na Stanley Cup.

Late in the 1999–2000 season, Lamoriello made the decision to fire Ftorek and replace him with Assistant Coach Larry Robinson, which the New York Post's Mark Everson described as "pure panic" at the prospect of another early-round playoff elimination.[47] The Devils were in position to reach the playoffs, but Lamoriello reacted to a stretch of 17 games in which the team went 5–10–2.[47] New Jersey followed the move by defeating the Florida Panthers, the Toronto Maple Leafs and the Philadelphia Flyers during the post-season to make the Finals.[45] In the Finals, the Devils reached the top again, defeating the defending champion Dallas Stars in six games to win the Stanley Cup for the second time.[48] Veterans such as Stevens, Holik, Niedermayer and Brodeur were joined by new players acquired in the intervening five years, including Patrik Elias, Petr Sykora, Jason Arnott, Alexander Mogilny and Calder Trophy recipient Scott Gomez.[49] The Devils' second championship run included a come-from-behind victory in the Conference Finals. They trailed the Flyers three games to one, but rebounded to win three-straight games and the series. This was the first time in NHL Conference Finals history that a 3–1 series deficit was surmounted.[50] This series featured a hit that captain Scott Stevens laid on Flyers center Eric Lindros in the seventh game, which effectively ended Lindros' career in Philadelphia.[51] Stevens was named the winner of the Conn Smythe Trophy,[52] as the Devils clinched the Stanley Cup on Arnott's goal in double-overtime of Game 6 in Dallas.[48]

In 2000, McMullen sold the team to Puck Holdings, an affiliate of YankeeNets, for $176 million. The owners wanted to program Devils games on what eventually became the YES Network and move the team to a new arena in Newark. Neither of these proposals became reality under Puck Holdings' ownership.[53] For the start of the next season, Lamoriello was appointed CEO of both the Devils and the New Jersey Nets National Basketball Association team. He remained at the helm of the basketball team until it was sold with the intention of moving it to Brooklyn in 2004.[54]

2001–2007: Terceira Stanley Cup e lockout[editar | editar a fonte]

Led by the Elias-Arnott-Sykora line (The A Line) on offense and the goaltending of Brodeur (who appeared in a record 97 games between the regular season and playoffs),[55][56] the Devils reached the Stanley Cup Finals for the second-straight year in 2001. They lost the series to the Colorado Avalanche despite leading 3–2.[57] John Madden became the first player in franchise history to win the Frank J. Selke Trophy for top defensive forward.[58] In the 2001–02 season, they were expected to be contenders once again,[59] and they finished the season as the third-best team in the Atlantic Division, with 95 points. The Devils entered the playoffs as a sixth seed, but lost in the first round to the third-seeded Carolina Hurricanes.[60]

Os Devils presentando ao Presidente George W. Bush cunha camisola do equipo despois de gañar a Stanley Cup en 2003.

In 2003, the Devils finished first in the Atlantic Division with 108 points.[61] Their playoff run included a seven-game Conference Final series victory, decided in the final three minutes on a goal by forward Jeff Friesen, over the Ottawa Senators.[62] In the Stanley Cup Finals, the Devils and Mighty Ducks of Anaheim had a back-and-forth battle, as both teams won all of their home games. The Devils brought the Stanley Cup to New Jersey for a third time, defeating the Mighty Ducks in the seventh game of the Finals in New Jersey.[61] After the series, Daneyko, a long-time fan favorite,[63] announced his retirement. Brodeur was awarded the Vezina Trophy as outstanding goaltender in the regular season for the first time in his career, having won 41 games in the regular season to top the NHL.[61]

In the 2003–04 season, Brodeur took home the Vezina Trophy again.[64] Despite losing team captain Scott Stevens in the 38th game of the season to a concussion,[65] the Devils finished second in the Atlantic Division with 100 points. With the sixth seed in the Stanley Cup playoffs, the Devils lost to the Philadelphia Flyers four games to one.[66] In March 2004, near the end of the season, Lehman Brothers executive Jeff Vanderbeek purchased a controlling interest from Puck Holdings and resigned from Lehman Brothers to assume full-time ownership. He had been a minority owner since the 2000 sale. Like Puck Holdings/YankeeNets, Vanderbeek largely left the Devils in Lamoriello's hands.[67]

Vanderbeek was a strong proponent of the proposed arena in Newark, which first received funding from the city council during Puck Holdings' ownership in 2002.[68] After legal battles over both eminent domain and the city's financial participation in the arena project, the final deal was approved by council in October 2004, during the early months of the lockout,[69] and the groundbreaking occurred almost exactly a year later.[70] Nonetheless, in January 2006, financial issues threatened to halt the deal, as the Devils did not provide the city with a required letter of credit until the last possible day.[71]

Though construction was well underway, in late summer 2006, new Mayor of Newark Cory Booker promised to reevaluate the deal and considered backing out.[72][73] In October, Booker conceded there would be "a first-class arena built in the city of Newark, whether we like it or not,"[74] and soon after the Devils struck a deal including both property and monetary givebacks that appeased city officials.[75] The arena, which was named the Prudential Center when Newark-based Prudential Financial purchased naming rights in early 2007,[76] opened shortly after the start of the 2007–08 season.[77]

O porteiro Martin Brodeur levou aos Devils a conseguir tres Stanley Cups, e é o líder de todos os tempos na NHL en vitorias, shutouts e goles encaixados.

The 2004–05 season was canceled due to the lockout; many Devils players played in European leagues and in the hockey world championships.[78] Patrik Elias, who was playing in the Russian Superleague, contracted hepatitis A.[79] Faced with Elias' indefinite recovery timetable, plus the loss of defensive stalwarts Scott Niedermayer to free agency and Scott Stevens to retirement, Lamoriello signed veteran defenseman Dan McGillis and two former Devils, winger Alexander Mogilny and defenseman Vladimir Malakhov, none of whom finished the season on the ice.[80] In July 2005, the team announced that Head Coach Pat Burns would not return for the 2005–06 season after being diagnosed with cancer for the second time in little more than a year.[81] Assistant Coach Larry Robinson, the team's head coach from 2000 to 2002, was promoted to start the season.[82]

The Devils struggled early in the 2005–06 season, ending the 2005 calendar year with a 16–18–5 record.[83] Robinson resigned as head coach on December 19, and Lamoriello moved down to the bench.[84] Once Elias returned from his bout with hepatitis, the team quickly turned around, finishing 46–27–9 after a season-ending 11-game winning streak capped with a 4–3 win over the Montreal Canadiens. During that final victory, which clinched the Devils' sixth division title, Brian Gionta set a new team record for goals in a season with 48, topping Pat Verbeek's 46.[85] The win streak to close the year was also an NHL record.[86] The Devils won their first round Stanley Cup playoff series against the Rangers four games to none, but were eliminated by the Carolina Hurricanes in the next round.[45]

In the off-season, the Devils hired former Montreal Canadiens head coach Claude Julien to replace Lamoriello behind the bench.[87] However, in the last week of the 2006–07 Devils season, with just three games left, Julien was fired, and Lamoriello once again reprised his coaching role.[88] The Devils went on to win their seventh Atlantic Division title and earn the second seed in the Eastern Conference after finishing ahead of the Pittsburgh Penguins by two points.[89] They then defeated the Tampa Bay Lightning in six games in the first round, but fell to the Ottawa Senators in the Eastern Conference Semi-finals in five.[45] The conclusion of the series marked the end of the Devils' time at the Continental Airlines Arena.[90]

2007–2013: Traslado a Newark e regreso ás finais[editar | editar a fonte]

O pavillón dos Devils dende 2007, o Prudential Center.

Before the move to Newark, the Devils hired their 14th coach in a 26-season span, Brent Sutter.[91] As the Devils' pre-season came to an end, prospects Nicklas Bergfors and David Clarkson made the final roster. The Devils opened their new arena, the Prudential Center, on October 27, 2007, against Ottawa after opening the season with a nine-game road trip. The game ended with a 4–1 win for Ottawa.[92] In the last game of the 2007–08 season against the Rangers, the Devils won in a shootout, giving them home ice advantage over the Rangers in the playoffs.[93] The Devils lost the series against the Rangers 4–1, losing all three games at home.[94] Brodeur won the Vezina Trophy for the fourth time in five years for his performance in the regular season.[64]

For the 2008–09 season, the Devils signed Brian Rolston and Bobby Holik, both making their second stints with the team.[95] The Devils were forced to play without Brodeur for over three months after he tore a biceps tendon in November, but strong play by backup goalie Scott Clemmensen kept the Devils atop the Atlantic Division.[96] After his return, Brodeur broke Patrick Roy's record for regular season wins on March 17, 2009, with his 552nd victory, while Patrik Elias became the franchise's all-time leading scorer with his 702nd point.[97] The season also served as a break-out year for 24-year old Zach Parise, who led the team with an impressive 45 goals and 94 points. In the opening round of the 2009 playoffs, the Devils were eliminated in a Game 7 loss in which the Hurricanes scored two goals in the last minute and twenty seconds to erase a 3–2 Devils lead.[98]

In the off-season, the Devils announced that Sutter was stepping down from his position, citing personal and family reasons; he became the coach of the Calgary Flames shortly afterward.[99] Jacques Lemaire returned to the head coach position.[100] During the 2009–10 season, the Devils made a trade to acquire star left wing Ilya Kovalchuk from the Atlanta Thrashers.[101] The Devils had their 12th 100-point season in their last 15 attempts. They finished the season in first place in the Atlantic Division, second in the Eastern Conference, and played in the post-season for the 13th-straight time. Their seeding matched them up against Philadelphia in the first round, and they were eliminated four games to one.[102]

After Lemaire retired from coaching, the Devils announced that the team's all-time leading scorer, John MacLean, would become their new head coach.[103] During the off-season, the Devils signed Kovalchuk to a 15-year, $100 million contract, keeping him in New Jersey until the conclusion of the 2024–25 season; the move came after the NHL had rejected a 17-year contract for allegedly circumventing the NHL Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA).[104] The League still penalized the Devils for trying to circumvent the NHL salary cap with a money fine, a third-round draft pick in 2011 and one future first-round pick within the next four seasons.[105] MacLean led the team to a record of 9–22–2, and after sitting in last place in the NHL on December 23, he was removed in favor of Lemaire, coming out of retirement for his third stint as head coach of the Devils and second in less than two seasons.[106] Just a few days later, struggling captain Jamie Langenbrunner was traded back to Dallas after nine seasons with New Jersey. With the injured Parise missing most of the regular season, the team struggled offensively, finishing last in goals scored. Despite this, the Devils managed a mid-season turnaround, winning 22 out of the next 25 games.[107] However, the Devils still failed to qualify for the playoffs for the first time since 1996, ending their 13 year streak.[108]

In the 2011 off-season, Lemaire once again retired and was replaced by former Florida Panthers head coach Peter DeBoer.[109] DeBoer's new system helped develop a strong offense, which had seven 40-point scorers by the season's end and broke an NHL record for the best regular season penalty kill since before the Expansion Era.[110][111] Four players – Kovalchuk, Elias, David Clarkson and newly named captain Zach Parise – scored 30 or more goals, with Kovalchuk and Elias also finishing the season among the NHL's top ten-point scorers.[112] Rookie forward Adam Henrique totaled 51 points and earned a Calder Trophy nomination for rookie of the year.[113] As the sixth seed in the Eastern Conference, the Devils defeated Southeast champions Florida before overcoming both divisional rivals, the Flyers and Rangers, to win the Conference and return to the Finals after nine years.[114][115] Facing the Los Angeles Kings in the Finals, the Devils managed to not be swept after losing the first three games in the series, but still lost the Cup in six games.[45][116]

During the 2012 off-season, Zach Parise signed a 13-year, $98 million contract with the Minnesota Wild, leaving the Devils after one season as team captain.[117] The Devils entered the lockout-shortened season with Bryce Salvador as their new captain.[118] However, the Devils failed to repeat the performance of the prior year, finishing 19–19–10 in 48 games and missed the playoffs.[119]

2013–presente: era Harris–Blitzer[editar | editar a fonte]

The Devils' longtime financial struggles worsened during the 2012–13 season, and at one point the team needed to borrow $30 million to meet their payroll.[120] This prompted owner Jeff Vanderbeek to sell the team.[121] Andrew Barroway, the attorney who loaned the team the $30 million, was one potential buyer.[120] Ultimately, the team was sold to Josh Harris, owner of the NBA's Philadelphia 76ers, and David S. Blitzer, for over $320 million.[121] The sale was formally announced on August 15, 2013.[122] During the offseason, Kovalchuk announced he would retire from the NHL, expressing a desire to return home to Russia along with his family.[123] In addition, 30-goal scorer David Clarkson also left the Devils, signing a 7-year deal with Toronto. With the departures of Parise and now Kovalchuk and Clarkson, the Devils were in desperate need of offensive help. In an effort to full the void, the Devils signed veteran Jaromir Jagr,[124] who despite being 41 years old, led the team scoring in the 2013–14 season. During the 2013 NHL Entry Draft, hosted in Newark, the Devils acquired goaltender Cory Schneider from Vancouver in exchange for the Devils' first round draft pick. Schneider split goaltending duties with the 41-year-old Brodeur, which led to some controversy over who should be the starting goalie for the Devils.[125] Despite Schneider's 1.97 goals against average leading the NHL, the Devils missed the playoffs by five points due to lagging offensive production.[126][127] In the 2014 offseason, the Devils saw the departure of NHL all-time wins leader Martin Brodeur, who was not re-signed and subsequently joined the St. Louis Blues. Brodeur, who had spent his entire 21-year career with the Devils, played only seven games with St. Louis before announcing his retirement.[128]

The 2014–15 season opened with the Devils' roster suffering with injuries, and consequently the team accumulated losses. On December 26, Peter DeBoer was fired from the head coach position.[129] To replace him, Lamoriello invested in two head coaches, former Devils player Scott Stevens (who had been DeBoer's assistant for two years) and Adam Oates, with Lamoriello himself supervising the team during the first months.[130] The Devils finished the season as the sixth-worst team in the League, 20 points away from a playoff spot and with just one victory in the last 11 games.[131]

During the 2015 offseason, Ray Shero was named the Devils' new general manager,[132] John Hynes was named as the new head coach,[133] and Lou Lamoriello resigned as team president and became the general manager of the Toronto Maple Leafs, replacing Dave Nonis who was fired at the end of the season.[134]

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

  1. Laroche, chapter "Kansas City Scouts", p. 1.
  2. 2,0 2,1 Laroche, chapter "Kansas City Scouts", p. 2.
  3. "1974–75 National Hockey League Standings". The Internet Hockey Database. Consultado o January 14, 2015. 
  4. Weiner, Evan (April 18, 2008). "Capitals, Scouts received rare shot at April hockey". National Hockey League. Consultado o January 14, 2015. 
  5. Rutherford, Jeremy P. (September 27, 2014). "Kansas City clings to NHL dreams as Blues visit". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Consultado o January 15, 2015. 
  6. Maguire, p. 141.
  7. Hafner, Dan (April 1, 1977). "Kings Outlast Rockies, Take Over Second Place". Los Angeles Times. p. E1. 
  8. "1976–77 National Hockey League Standings". The Internet Hockey Database. Consultado o January 15, 2015. 
  9. "1977–78 National Hockey League Standinds". The Internet Hockey Database. Consultado o January 15, 2015. 
  10. "Philadelphia 3, Colorado 1". The Globe and Mail. April 14, 1978. p. 29. 
  11. Frei, Terry (February 2, 2001). "It may not be glorious, but it's tradition nonetheless". ESPN. Consultado o January 16, 2015. 
  12. "The Newswire: Colorado Rockies Will Go to Jersey If NHL Approves". Los Angeles Times. June 30, 1978. p. E4. 
  13. "NHL ratifies Rockies sale by Vickers". The Globe and Mail. August 10, 1978. p. 43. 
  14. Goldaper, Sam (July 1, 1978). "Shift of Rockies to Jersey Faces Snags". The New York Times. p. 13. 
  15. "Don Cherry fired over Colorado's finish". The Globe and Mail. May 21, 1980. p. 37. 
  16. Blumenstock, Kathy (May 28, 1982). "Rockies' Sale, Move Approved". The Washington Post. p. D1. 
  17. Mifflin, 2Michael; Katz (30 de xuño de 1982). "Scouting; 'Jersey Devils' Wins Name Poll". The New York Times (en inglés). Consultado o 21 de xuño de 2016.  |nome1= e |nome= redundantes (Axuda)
  18. Johnson, Brent (15 de xaneiro de 2015). "Deal to close Izod Center expected to be announced Thursday" (en inglés). NJ.com. Consultado o 21 de xuño de 2016. 
  19. "Prudential Center" (en inglés). ESPN. Consultado o 21 de xuño de 2016. 
  20. 20,0 20,1 Rosen, Dan. "1982–83: The First Season" (en inglés). New Jersey Devils. Consultado o 21 de xuño de 2016. 
  21. 21,0 21,1 "Dates in Devils History" (PDF) (en inglés). New Jersey Devils. 2005. Arquivado dende o orixinal (PDF) o 24 de marzo de 2006. Consultado o 21 de xuño de 2016. 
  22. "Gretzky blasts Devils as 'Mickey Mouse' team". Daily Record (en inglés). 22 de novembro de 1983. Consultado o 21 de xullo de 2016. 
  23. Harris, Mike (January 17, 1984). "Oilers grab the cheese from 'Mickey Mouse' Devils". The Evening News. Consultado o March 25, 2006. 
  24. Rosen, Dan. "1983–84: Growing Pains Lead to Promise". New Jersey Devils. Consultado o March 25, 2006. 
  25. 25,0 25,1 Rosen, Dan. "1986–87: On The Cusp". New Jersey Devils. Consultado o January 20, 2015. 
  26. 26,0 26,1 26,2 26,3 "New Jersey Devils Statistics and History". The Internet Hockey Database. Consultado o January 20, 2015. 
  27. Krasner, Steven (May 1, 1987). "Lou Lamoriello leaves PC with mixed emotions: Friars' A.D. headed to NHL Devils after 28-year association". Providence Journal. p. 1. 
  28. Yannis, Alex (September 11, 1987). "Devils' Front Office Undergoes Change". The New York Times. p. D19. 
  29. "Devils earn playoff berth". The Globe and Mail. April 4, 1988. p. C2. 
  30. Yannis, Alex (April 4, 1988). "Devils' Playoff Blight Ends". The New York Times. p. C1. 
  31. 31,0 31,1 Maguire, p. 52.
  32. Rosen, Dan. "1988–89: Paving the Way". New Jersey Devils. Consultado o January 25, 2015. 
  33. "Two Soviet Defensemen Sign with the Devils". Philadelphia Inquirer. June 27, 1989. Consultado o January 25, 2015. 
  34. Yannis, Alex (December 25, 1991). "Hockey; Reflecting on Russia, With Hope And Fear". The New York Times. Consultado o January 25, 2015. 
  35. "Herb Brooks leaves Devils; management is critical". Gainesville Sun. Associated Press. June 1, 1993. Consultado o January 26, 2015. 
  36. 36,0 36,1 36,2 Pickens, Pat (September 15, 2014). "1994–95 champion Devils: An oral history, Pt. 1". SportsNet. Consultado o January 26, 2015. 
  37. "1993–94 New Jersey Devils roster and statistics". The Internet Hockey Database. Consultado o January 27, 2015. 
  38. Pickens, Pat (September 17, 2014). "1994–95 champion Devils: An oral history, Pt. 3". SportsNet. Consultado o January 29, 2015. 
  39. "Stanley Cup for a Day". 
  40. Pickens, Pat (September 19, 2014). "1994–95 champion Devils: An oral history, Pt. 5". SportsNet. Consultado o January 29, 2015. 
  41. Pickens, Pat (September 18, 2014). "1994–95 champion Devils: An oral history, Pt. 4". SportsNet. Consultado o January 29, 2015. 
  42. Sandomir, Richard (July 14, 1995). "Hockey – Devils and New Jersey Call Truce and Strike Deal". The New York Times. Consultado o January 29, 2015. 
  43. Rosen, Dan. "1995–96: Continuing to Battle". New Jersey Devils. Consultado o January 31, 2015. 
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  62. Diamos, Jason (May 24, 2003). "Hockey; Friesen's Late Goal Gives Devils A Date With Ducks in the Finals". The New York Times. Consultado o February 3, 2015. 
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  68. Brennan, John (October 17, 2002). "Newark approves $200M for arena". The Record. 
  69. Brennan, John (October 7, 2004). "Newark arena for Devils 'a done deal'". The Record. Arquivado dende o orixinal o October 16, 2007. Consultado o August 30, 2006. 
  70. "Newark Breaks Ground for Devils Arena". New Jersey Devils. October 3, 2005. Arquivado dende o orixinal o September 8, 2006. Consultado o August 30, 2006. 
  71. Everson, Darren (January 25, 2006). "At deadline, Devils finally realize Newark arena goal". New York Daily News. Consultado o February 6, 2015. 
  72. Brennan, John (June 20, 2006). "Newark mayor-elect sees no need for 2 arenas". The Record. Arquivado dende o orixinal o October 16, 2007. Consultado o August 30, 2006. 
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  74. Brennan, John (October 20, 2006). "Devils arena will go forward, Booker says". The Record (Bergen County). Arquivado dende o orixinal o October 16, 2007. Consultado o October 21, 2006. 
  75. Brennan, John (October 31, 2006). "Newark, Devils OK arena deal". The Record (Bergen County). Arquivado dende o orixinal o September 28, 2007. Consultado o October 31, 2006. 
  76. "Devils Arena Entertainment, LLC and Prudential Financial, Inc. Announce Naming-Rights Deal for Prudential Center" (Nota de prensa). New Jersey Devils. January 8, 2007. Consultado o February 19, 2007. 
  77. Rotstein, Gary (July 31, 2006). "$290M in funding tight, but doable, for arena". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Consultado o August 30, 2006. 
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  80. "Devils deal Malakhov to Sharks to lower payroll". ESPN. October 3, 2006. Consultado o November 16, 2006. 
  81. "Devils' Burns battling cancer again, won't coach next year". CBC Sports. July 8, 2006. Arquivado dende o orixinal o October 16, 2007. Consultado o August 30, 2006. 
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  86. "25th Anniversary Most Memorable Moments Countdown". newjerseydevils.com. 2007. Arquivado dende o orixinal o April 24, 2007. Consultado o May 12, 2007. 
  87. Frankston, Janet (June 13, 2006). "Devils Hire Claude Julien As Coach". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Consultado o August 30, 2006. 
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  92. Caldwell, Dave (October 28, 2007). "Devils Open Their New Building but Fall Apart in Third Period". The New York Times. Consultado o February 10, 2015. 
  93. Canavan, Tom (April 6, 2008). "Parise, Elias score to give Devils 3–2 shootout win over Rangers". USA Today. Associated Press. Consultado o February 10, 2015. 
  94. "Lundqvist stops penalty shot, Rangers hold on to eliminate Devils". ESPN. Associated Press. April 18, 2008. Consultado o February 10, 2015. 
  95. Allen, Kevin (September 25, 2008). "Atlantic preview: Pens boast scorers, Devils rely on defense". USA Today. Consultado o February 11, 2005. 
  96. "Devils' Brodeur back at practice for first time in three months". USA Today. Associated Press. February 14, 2009. Consultado o February 11, 2015. 
  97. "Brodeur breaks Roy's wins record as Devils down Blackhawks". ESPN. Associated Press. March 17, 2009. Consultado o February 11, 2015. 
  98. Chere, Rich (April 28, 2009). "Carolina Hurricanes stun New Jersey Devils with two goals in final 80 seconds to win Game 7, 4–3". Newark Star-Ledger. Consultado o February 11, 2015. 
  99. Chere, Rich (June 23, 2009). "New Jersey Devils owner Jeff Vanderbeek upset by Brent Sutter's decision to coach Calgary Flames". Newark Star-Ledger. Consultado o February 12, 2015. 
  100. "Cup-winning Jacques Lemaire back to coach Devils". USA Today. Associated Press. July 14, 2009. Consultado o February 12, 2015. 
  101. LeBrun, Pierre (February 5, 2010). "Devils acquire Kovalchuk". ESPN. Consultado o February 12, 2015. 
  102. "Boucher pitches shutout as Flyers bounce Devils in 5 games". ESPN. Associated Press. April 22, 2010. Consultado o February 12, 2015. 
  103. Levinson, Mason (June 17, 2010). "New Jersey Devils Name Goals Leader John MacLean Head Coach". Bloomberg. Consultado o February 14, 2015. 
  104. Rosen, Dan (September 4, 2010). "Kovy deal registered as NHL, NHLPA reach settlement". National Hockey League. Consultado o September 4, 2010. 
  105. "New Jersey Devils' penalty for Kovalchuk contract modified". NHL.com. March 6, 2014. Consultado o August 4, 2014. 
  106. "Jacques Lemaire returns as coach". ESPN. Associated Press. December 23, 2010. Consultado o February 14, 2015. 
  107. "Devils Look to Continue Their Historic Turnaround". The Wall Street Journal. February 14, 2011. Consultado o February 14, 2015. 
  108. Canavan, Tom (October 8, 2014). "New Jersey Devils seek to end playoff drought". Daily Record. Consultado o February 14, 2015. 
  109. Zinser, Lynn (July 19, 2011). "Devils Hire Peter DeBoer as New Head Coach". The New York Times. Consultado o February 28, 2015. 
  110. "Peter DeBoer's Devils: How coach's philosophy, rivalry with Tortorella have defined New Jersey's playoff run". Yahoo!. Consultado o February 26, 2015. 
  111. Lozo, Dave (April 9, 2012). "Forward thinking helped Devils set PK record". National Hockey League. Consultado o February 26, 2015. 
  112. "Player Stats: 2011–2012 Regular season: All Skaters – Total Points". ESPN. Consultado o May 2, 2014. 
  113. Stubits, Brian (April 20, 2012). "Henrique, Landeskog, Nugent-Hopkins announced as Calder Trophy finalists". CBS Sports. Consultado o February 28, 2015. 
  114. "Factbox-NHL-Eastern Conference champion New Jersey Devils". Chicago Tribune. May 28, 2012. Consultado o February 26, 2015. 
  115. Flynn, Douglas (May 26, 2012). "Martin Brodeur, Adam Henrique Exorcise Ghosts As Old and Young Unite to Put Devils in Stanley Cup Final". NESN. Consultado o February 26, 2015. 
  116. Lozo, Dave (June 12, 2012). "Devils disappointed, but proud". NHL.com. Consultado o May 2, 2014. 
  117. "Zach Parise, Ryan Suter to Wild". ESPN. July 4, 2012. Consultado o February 16, 2015. 
  118. "Devils name defenseman Salvador captain". National Hockey League. January 17, 2013. Consultado o February 16, 2015. 
  119. "2012–13 New Jersey Devils Roster and Statistics". Hockey Reference. Consultado o February 16, 2015. 
  120. 120,0 120,1 Terruso, Julia (June 29, 2013). "Report: NJ Devils may be sold to attorney Andrew Barroway". The Star-Ledger. Consultado o February 17, 2015. 
  121. 121,0 121,1 Sielski, Mike (August 14, 2013). "New Jersey Devils Set to Be Sold". Wall Street Journal. 
  122. "Devils announce sale of team to billionaire Josh Harris". The Star-Ledger. August 15, 2013. Consultado o February 17, 2015. 
  123. Allen, Kevin (July 11, 2013). "Ilya Kovalchuk says he's retiring from NHL". USA Today. Consultado o February 26, 2015. 
  124. "New Jersey Devils sign forward Jaromir Jagr, add veteran scoring in wake of losing Kovalchuk". The Hockey News. July 23, 2013. Consultado o February 17, 2015. 
  125. "Cory Schneider 'frustrated' with limited time behind Martin Brodeur". CBS Sports. November 27, 2013. Consultado o January 8, 2016. 
  126. Valentine, Ben (January 13, 2015). "Lack of prime numbers – the age problem for the Devils". Sporting News. Consultado o February 18, 2015. 
  127. "2013–14 New Jersey Devils Roster and Statistics". Hockey Reference. Consultado o February 16, 2015. 
  128. "Brodeur retires, joins Blues' staff". ESPN. January 29, 2015. Consultado o January 8, 2016. 
  129. "Pete DeBoer fired by Devils". CBC Sports. The Associated Press. December 26, 2014. Consultado o March 26, 2015. 
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  131. Chere, Rick (April 11, 2015). "Lou Lamoriello and Devils players reflect on one win in last 11 games". NJ.com. Consultado o 2015-04-13. 
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  134. Brophy, Mike (July 23, 2015). "Lamoriello resigns from Devils, becomes Leafs GM". NHL.com. Consultado o July 24, 2015. 

Véxase tamén[editar | editar a fonte]

Outros artigos[editar | editar a fonte]

Bibliografía[editar | editar a fonte]

  • Laroche, Stephen (2014). Changing the Game: A History of NHL Expansion (en inglés). ECW Press. ISBN 9781770905788. 
  • Maguire, Liam (2012). Next Goal Wins!: The Ultimate NHL Historian's One-of-a-Kind Collection of Hockey Trivia (en inglés). Random House of Canada. ISBN 9780307363411. 
  • Swayne, Linda E.; Dodds, Mark (2011). Encyclopedia of Sports Management and Marketing (en inglés). SAGE Publications. ISBN 9781452266480. 

Ligazóns externas[editar | editar a fonte]

Historia dos Pittsburgh Penguins[editar | editar a fonte]

A expansión da NHL en 1967-1968[editar | editar a fonte]

En 1967, a National Hockey League decidiu dobrar o número de equipos participantes na competición. A cidade de Pittsburgh xa tiña experiencia de posuír un equipo de hóckey sobre xeo e postulouse para acoller unha franquía. En efecto, dende 1925 ata 1930, a cidade acolleu aos Pirates, equipo homónimo do equipo de béisbol.[1] O equipo de hóckey sobre xeo permaneceu na cidade ata o final da tempada 1929-30, trasladándose despois a Filadelfia e converténdose nos Philadelphia Quakers para tentar, en van, recuperar o equilibrio financeiro.[2] Algúns anos máis tarde, unha nova franquía naceu na cidade, mais desta vez na American Hockey League (AHL): os Pittsburgh Hornets. Este último permaneceu na cidade ata o final da tempada 1955-56, cando tivo que suspender as súas operacións a causa do seu pavillón, Duquesne Gardens, demasiado vello para seguir a acoller partidos de hóckey sobre xeo.[3]

A franquía regresou á AHL na tempada 1961-62 e competiu ata o inicio da tempada 1967-68. De feito, o 9 de febreiro de 1966, a NHL concedeulle a Pittsburgh a súa inclusión na liga. O equipo dos Hornets xogou o seu último partido na AHL o 30 de abril de 1967 durante a final da Calder Cup, na que gañou o título por terceira vez na súa historia.[3] A cidade de Pittsburgh participou no draft de expansión a cambio da suma de de dous millóns de dólares. A nova franquía tamén pagou 750.000 dólares para colocar o xeo no Civic Arena conforme coas esixencias da NHL.[4]

O nome do novo equipo estaba inspirado na forma particular do teito, a pista era daquela coñecida como o iglú. A pesar de todo, lanzouse un concurso na prensa e así oficialmente o 10 de febreiro de 1967, logo de 26.000 votos, foi adoptado o nome do equipo. Carol McGregor, muller de John McGregor que contribuiu á creación do equipo, foi a primeira que propuxo o nome, declarando que lle gustaba a aliteración en P, ela vía ao equipo xogando coas cores branca e negra e especialmente pola forma do Civic Arena.[5] O primeiro director xeral, Jack Riley, propuxo outros nomes : Shamrocks – en referencia ao equipo da International Hockey League dos anos 1930, Hornets ou Eskimos son citados, mais finalmente a denominación Penguins – literalmente en galego pingüíns[6] – foi escollido como nome. O alcume de Pens moitas veces empregado.Starkey 2006, p. 2

O primeiro partido da historia do equipo tivo lugar o 11 de outubro de 1967 contra os Montreal Canadiens, que se impuxeron por dous goles a un.[7] Ao principio da tempada 1967-68 os resultados dos novos equipos foron dificultados polas normas rigorosas que permitían aos « seis equipos orixinais »[Note 1] de reter os xogadores máis talentosos. Os dous mellores xogadores da primeira tempada de Pittsburgh foron os veteranos Andy Bathgate, ex-xogador dos New York Rangers, e Leo Boivin, antes nos Boston Bruins. O resto do equipo estaba constituido por xogadores novos ou xogadores de nivel medio no final das súas carreiras. O salario total foi de 315.000 dólares, incluíndo un salario de 25.000 dólares só para Bathgate. En comparación, seis anos máis tarde Gilbert Perreault e os Buffalo Sabres asinaron un contrato por unha suma superior, e o salario de Bathgate representa nos anos 2000 o que gaña unha estrela da NHL nun partido.Starkey 2006, p. 3

No transcurso das primeiras tempadas, o antigo xogadore George Sullivan foi o adestrador xefe do equipo, mais foi remprazado por Red Kelly en 1969. De feito, os resultados non acompañaron e os dous veteranos non eran abondo para compensar a falta de experiencia do equipo e dos seus xogadores novos (Ken Schinkel, Keith McCreary, Bryan Watson ou Les Binkley por exemplo). A franquía só conseguiu clasificarse para os play-offs dúas veces nas súas sete primeiras tempadas de existencia.[8]

Década de 1970[editar | editar a fonte]

Durante a tempada 1969-70, os Penguins finalizaron segundos da súa división,[9] e accederon por primeira vez na súa historia aos play-offs da Stanley Cup.[8] Logo de eliminar aos Oakland Seals na primeira rolda en catro partidos, perderon a final de división contra os St. Louis Blues.[8] A tempada viu o debut na NHL de Michel Brière. Riley ofreceulle un salario de 13.000 dólares cunha bonificación de 4.000 dólares á sinatura. Brière pediu entón 5.000 dólares co argumento principal de que tiña a intención de xogar durante os seguintes 20 anos cos Penguins.[10] Realizou unha primeira tempada moi boa, finalizando como terceiro mellor puntuador do equipo por detrás de Dean Prentice e Ken Schinkel[9] e mellor pasador da formación.[11] Vítima dun accidente de tráfico tres semanas antes da súa voda en maio de 1970, Brière pasou case un ano no hospital antes de morrer o 13 de abril de 1971.[12][7] O número 21 que portaba Brière esa tempada foi posteriormente retirado.[Note 2] na súa honra.[13]

A mediados da década de 1970, a « Century Line », composta por Syl Apps, Jr., Lowell MacDonald e Jean Pronovost, levou o ataque dos Penguins. Apps xogou normalmente no centro mentres que MacDonald e Pronovost ocuparon as ás mais sobre o xeo, eles non paraban de intercambiar as posicións para descolocar aos defensores rivais. Entre os tres conseguiron anotar 107 goles na tempada 1973-74.[14] A finais da década de 1970, foi o turno de Rick Kehoe, Pierre Larouche e Ron Schock de asegurar o ataque do equipo, mais a defensa seguiu a ser feble e a ausencia dun porteiro talentoso impediu á franquía superar a primeira rolda dos play-offs.[8]

En 1975, a franquía estivo a piques de declararse en quebra, xa que todos os seus acredores reclamaron o rembolos das súas débedas. O 13 de xuño declarouse en suspensión de pagamentos e a NHL asumiu o seu control ata o 11 de xullo, data de compra dos Penguins por un grupo composto por Wren Blair, Al Savill e Otto Frenzel.[7]

Le début des années 1980[editar | editar a fonte]

Photographie noire et blanche de Mario Lemieux avec le maillot portant le C de capitaine des voisins de Laval.
Mario Lemieux, ici sous les couleurs des Voisins de Laval en 1984, aura été « responsable » d'une saison 1983-1984 catastrophique de l'équipe, les dirigeants cherchant à tout prix la dernière place du classement.

Malgré les bons joueurs présents dans l’équipe – le défenseur Randy Carlyle, le buteur Paul Gardner ou encore Mike Bullard –, l’équipe réalise au début des années 1980 des saisons catastrophiques, en particulier au cours des saisons 1982-1983 et 1983-1984, deux saisons où l'équipe termine dernière de la LNH[15].

Lors de cette dernière saison, le directeur général des Penguins, Eddie Johnston, ne fait pas grand-chose pour éviter la dernière place : il n’hésite pas à envoyer jouer le gardien, Roberto Romano, avec l’équipe mineure quand ce dernier est en grande forme[16]. À la place Vincent Tremblay est titularisé et accorde vingt-quatre buts en quatre matchs[17]. Vers le mois de mars, Randy Carlyle, un des meilleurs joueurs de l'équipe cette saison, est échangé aux Whalers de Hartford en échange d’un joueur futur, qui ne rejoint les Penguins qu’après la fin de la saison[17]. Ainsi, les joueurs passent leur temps à faire des allers-retours entre la franchise de LNH et les ligues mineures et un total record de quarante-huit joueurs sont utilisés au cours de la saison[18]. En définitive, de la saison, les Penguins finissent derniers avec 38 points et les Devils du New Jersey sont à 41 points[17].

La « récompense » pour de telles saisons ratées est de pouvoir choisir le premier au repêchage[Note 3] de la Ligue nationale de hockey. Malgré l’insistance de nombreuses franchises pour obtenir le premier choix pour le repêchage d’entrée dans la LNH 1984, Johnston et les Penguins s’accrochent à ce premier choix car ils souhaitent sélectionner Mario Lemieux, vedette montante de la Ligue de hockey junior majeur du Québec et grand espoir de la LNH. Le directeur général des North Stars du Minnesota aurait ainsi proposé les douze choix de repêchage alors que les Nordiques de Québec auraient voulu échanger les trois frères Šťastný Peter, Anton et Marián pour obtenir le premier choix au repêchage des Penguins[19]. Johnston qui a supervisé lui-même le jeune Lemieux ne cède pas aux propositions et le jeune Québécois rejoint l'équipe de la Pennsylvannie[20].

L’ère Lemieux : 1984-2006[editar | editar a fonte]

En attendant les séries[editar | editar a fonte]

Malgré les attentes et sacrifices des Penguins, les fans de l'équipe tombent de haut quand le jour du repêchage, le 9 juin 1984, Lemieux refuse de serrer la main aux dirigeants de l'équipe et de mettre sur son dos le maillot de l'équipe : les deux parties étant en pleines négociations salariales, le joueur du Québec décide alors de frapper un grand coup[21]. Finalement, Lemieux signe son contrat avec Pittsburgh quelques jours plus tard et au cours de son premier match de la saison 1984-1985 sous ses nouvelles couleurs, il marque les esprits en inscrivant, dès son premier temps de jeu et sur son premier tir, son tout premier but[22]. Les habitués du Civic Arena doivent attendre encore six jours pour voir leur jeune joueur prendre part à un match devant eux. L'équipe est alors opposée aux Canucks de Vancouver ; au bout de 18 secondes, Lemieux inscrit son premier but devant son public, pour une victoire 4-3. Deux minutes plus tard, Gary Lupul des Canucks vient défier Lemieux ; Lemieux décide de montrer qu'il sait marquer des points mais également se défendre tout seul : il jette ses gants et remporte le premier combat de sa carrière dans la LNH[23].

Après encore quatre saisons sans séries éliminatoires pour les Penguins[8], Lemieux devient au cours de la saison 1988-1989 de la LNH le meilleur pointeur de la ligue avec 199 points[24]. La franchise se donne les moyens d’épauler Lemieux avec l’arrivée à ses côtés du défenseur Paul Coffey en provenance des Oilers d'Edmonton ainsi que de Kevin Stevens et de John Cullen. De plus, cette saison voit également l’arrivée dans les buts de Tom Barrasso depuis les Sabres de Buffalo sous l'impulsion de Tony Esposito directeur général de l'équipe[25]. L’équipe se qualifie enfin pour les séries éliminatoires, élimine les Rangers de New York en quatre matchs mais elle perd au deuxième tour contre les Flyers de Philadelphie en sept rencontres[8].

La première Coupe Stanley, 1990-1991[editar | editar a fonte]

[[Fichier:Jagr Czech1.png|miniatura|alt=Photographie de Jaromír Jágr avec le maillot blanc de la République tchèque|Jaromír Jágr (ici en 2010 avec l'équipe de République tchèque) rejoint Pittsburgh en tant que premier choix de l'équipe au repêchage de 1990.]] Modelo:Article détaillé Le 12 juin 1990, Craig Patrick, nouveau directeur-général de l'équipe depuis 1989, enrôle Bob Johnson pour prendre la tête de l'équipe. Le même jour, Patrick fait également signer Scotty Bowman, sans contrat depuis quelques années, afin de l'intégrer dans le pôle développement des joueurs de la franchise[26]. Johnson et Patrick font venir l'ancien joueur des Flames, Joe Mullen puis Gordie Roberts au début de la saison[27]. Bryan Trottier, quadruple vainqueur de la Coupe Stanley au début des années 1980 avec les Islanders de New York, signe également pour ajouter du talent à l'équipe. Finalement ce dernier ne joue qu'une cinquantaine de matchs dans la saison régulière, mais Johnson et Patrick avaient été très clairs au début de la saison, ne lui promettant pas une saison complète mais comptant grandement sur lui pour les séries éliminatoires[28]. Johsnon tiendra parole et Trottier ne manque qu'un seul match des séries[29].

Avant le repêchage d'entrée de LNH de 1990, Craig Patrick a personnellement supervisé le jeune tchèque Jaromír Jágr. Il n'est cependant pas le seul à suivre le joueur du Poldi SONP Kladno : le directeur des Flyers de Philadelphie l'a également repéré et ces mêmes Flyers choisissent avant les Penguins. Finalement, quand le directeur général des Flyers quitte la franchise quelques jours avant le repêchage, Patrick commence à espérer voir Jágr arriver au sein de l'équipe. Owen Nolan, Petr Nedvěd, Keith Primeau et Mike Ricci sont choisis lors des quatre premiers tours et les Penguins de Patrick peuvent choisir Jágr en en tant que cinquième joueur[30].

De son côté, Lemieux est diminué par les blessures tout au long de la saison passée et son mal de dos se transforme en hernie discale. Le 11 juin 1990, les chirurgiens procèdent à l'ablation d'un disque vertébral, mais Lemieux doit passer quatre semaines alité en raison d'une infection postopératoire[31]. Même s'il se remet petit à petit, la douleur ne disparaît pas complètement et il manque les cinquante premiers matchs de la saison 1990-1991[32].

[[Fichier:Stanley cup banner 1.jpg|miniatura|left|upright=0.8|alt=Photographie de bannières des titres gagnés en 1990-1991 par les Penguins de Pittsburgh.|right|Pour célébrer les titres de 1990-1991, les Penguins ont accrochés des bannières au plafond du Mellon Arena.]]

En décembre, afin de mieux intégrer le jeune Jágr qui réalise un début de saison assez difficile qui a du mal à se faire à la vie nord-américaine, l'équipe fait signer Jiří Hrdina[33]. Plus tard dans la saison, Ron Francis arrive aux Penguins en provenance des Whalers de Hartford au cours d'un échange impliquant Grant Jennings, Ulf Samuelsson et Francis contre John Cullen, Jeff Parker et Zarley Zalapski ; l'échange est, à l'époque, jugé par les observateurs comme étant à l'avantage des Whalers[28].

À la fin de la saison régulière, les Penguins terminent pour la première fois de leur histoire en tête de leur division. Ils parviennent à remporter leur première Coupe Stanley de leur histoire en perdant à chaque fois le premier match de chaque série. Ils battent tour à tour les Devils du New Jersey, les Capitals de Washington, les Bruins de Boston avant de jouer la finale contre la dernière équipe qualifiée pour les séries : les North Stars du Minnesota[34]. Au cours du deuxième match de la série, Mario Lemieux inscrit un des plus beaux buts de sa carrière. Lancé par Bourque, Lemieux se défait de Chambers en lui passant le palet du revers de la crosse entre les jambes puis va ensuite débouler à toute vitesse sur le gardien des North Stars, Jon Casey. Feintant sur la gauche du gardien, Lemieux fait passer le palet de l'intérieur de sa crosse à l'extérieur pour finir sa course en glissade et inscrire le but sur la droite de Casey[35],[36].

Le sixième match est joué le 25 mai et à la fin du deuxième tiers-temps, le score est déjà de 6 à 0 pour les Penguins qui mènent la série trois matchs à deux. Johnson tente alors de calmer la tension de ses joueurs en faisant un discours. Ses joueurs l'entendent alors jurer en leur demandant de ne pas gâcher leur opportunité de devenir champion du monde, une première dans la carrière d'entraîneur de Johsnon[37]. Finalement, les Penguins soulèvent leur première Coupe Stanley de leur histoire en inscrivant deux buts de plus et concluant la série par un blanchissage[Note 4] de Tom Barrasso. Le score de 8–0 est le score le plus élevé pour un match de la finale depuis le 23–2 infligé par les Silver Seven d'Ottawa aux Nuggets de Dawson City lors de la finale de 1905[38]. Lemieux devient le premier joueur des Penguins à remporter le trophée Conn Smythe, titre du meilleur joueur[Note 5] des séries[39].

Le 24 juin 1991, l’équipe des Penguins est la première équipe championne de la Coupe Stanley à aller visiter avec son trophée la Maison-Blanche où ils sont reçus par George H. W. Bush. Ce dernier n’étant pas fan de hockey demande à Mario Lemieux, l'un des meilleurs joueurs du moment, son nom quand celui–ci se présente pour lui serrer la main[40].

La deuxième Coupe Stanley 1991-1992[editar | editar a fonte]

[[Fichier:Tom Barrasso.jpg|miniatura|upright=0.8|alt= Photographie de Tom Barrasso avec les Hurricanes de la Caroline.|Tom Barrasso (ici avec les Hurricanes de la Caroline, à droite de la photo) remporte en 1991-1992 sa deuxième Coupe Stanley avec les Penguins.]] Modelo:Article détaillé Le 29 août 1991, Bob Johnson est conduit par sa femme à l’hôpital. Il est alors atteint d’un cancer au cerveau et son état est plus qu’alarmant[40]. Le Modelo:1er octobre 1991, Scotty Bowman est nommé entraîneur par intérim[41] mais il passe toute la saison derrière le banc des Penguins, Johnson succombant à son cancer le 26 novembre 1991[42].

Le capitaine des Penguins se porte mieux et en soixante-quatre rencontres jouées, il inscrit 131 points, le plus haut total de la LNH cette année-là ; il est suivi par son coéquipier Kevin Stevens, auteur de 123 points, puis de la vedette de la LNH, Wayne Gretzky qui en compte 121[43]. Lemieux remporte le troisième trophée Art Ross de sa carrière en tant que premier pointeur du classement[44]. À la fin de la saison 1991-1992, les Penguins sont classés troisièmes de leur division[43] mais sont tout de même qualifiés pour les séries. Ils écartent au premier tour les Capitals puis sont opposés aux Rangers. Au cours du deuxième match contre les Rangers, Lemieux sort sur blessure à la suite d'un coup de crosse d'Adam Graves qui lui brise le poignet et lui fait manquer cinq matchs des séries[45]. La relève est assurée par les autres joueurs de l'équipe et notamment par Ron Francis. Épaulé par Jágr et Stevens, Francis est le héros du quatrième match lorsqu'il réalise un coup du chapeau dont un but depuis la ligne bleue et mle troisième en prolongation[46]. Lemieux prend part à la demi-finale contre les Bruins et lors du quatrième match, il inscrit ce qui est souvent considéré comme un de ses dix plus beaux buts : sur une échappée, seul Raymond Bourque est là pour défendre et les deux joueurs patinent vers le but des Bruins. Lemieux passe le palet au milieu des patins de Bourque qui ne sait plus où celui-ci se trouve alors que Lemieux parvient à récupérer le palet et trompe à Andy Moog[46]. Les Penguins remportent leur deuxième Coupe Stanley en écartant en finale les Blackhawks de Chicago en quatre matchs nets. Avec 16 buts et 34 points, Lemieux est le meilleur buteur et pointeeur de la formation. Il reçoit pour la deuxième année consécutive le titre de meilleur joueur des séries[39].

Les résultats et les finances se dégradent petit à petit[editar | editar a fonte]

Photographie de Mario Lemieux dans la tenue des Penguins de Pittsburgh.
Mario Lemieux avec le troisième maillot introduit en 1995.

Le cancer inflige encore une fois un coup aux Penguins en 1993. En effet, après Johnson, les docteurs diagnostiquent à Lemieux la maladie de Hodgkin et il est obligé de mettre sa carrière entre parenthèses[47]. Malgré tout, deux mois plus tard, Lemieux revient au jeu et permet aux Penguins de finir la saison avec 56 victoires, vingt-et-une défaites et sept matchs nuls. Ils remportent le premier trophée des présidents de l’histoire de la franchise en tant qu’équipe avec le plus de points de la ligue pour[43]. Quatre joueurs de l'équipe égalent ou dépassent au cours de cette saison la barre des cent points : Ron Francis (100), Rick Tocchet (109), Kevin Stevens (111) et Lemieux (160) ; dans les buts, Barasso, réalise à la fin du calendrier une série de neuf victoires consécutives[48] alors que l'équipe compte dix-sept matchs sans défaites d’affilée pour clore la saison régulière[49]. Malgré ces très bonnes performances, les doubles champions en titres sont éliminés dès le deuxième tour des séries par les Islanders de New York[34].

Jusqu’à la fin des années 1990, les Penguins continuent à être une équipe des meilleures équipes du circuit sans pour autant parvenir à remporter une nouvelle Coupe Stanley. En 1997, Lemieux se retire du jeu en raison de douleurs au dos. Il laisse alors sa place de meilleur de l'équipe à Jágr[50]. Pour tout ce qu’il a réalisé et pour tout ce qu’il représente, le Temple de la renommée du hockey l'accueille en son sein la même année sans attendre la fin de la période « normale » de trois ans[51]. En juin 1999, alors que les Penguins ont été éliminés en demi-finale d'association, Jágr, auteur de 127 points au cours de la saison régulière, devient le deuxième joueur de l'histoire de l'équipe à remporter le trophée Hart du meilleur joueur[52].

Les finances des Penguins sont au plus mal et ils frôlent la faillite. L’équipe ne doit son salut qu’à son principal créancier : Lemieux. En effet, la franchise lui doit des millions de dollars de salaires non payés mais Lemieux préfère annuler la dette et prendre la direction de la franchise plutôt que de voir l'équipe avec laquelle il a passé douze saisons disparaître seulement deux ans après son départ à la retraite[53],[54].

En novembre 2000, le propriétaire des Penguins annonce son retour au jeu pour cette saison 2000-2001. Dès son premier match contre les Maple Leafs de Toronto, il inscrit trois points dont un but[55]. Il mène encore une fois les Penguins en séries éliminatoires[56] mais ils sont défaits par les Devils du New Jersey en finale de l'association de l'Est[57].

[[Fichier:Marc-Andre Fleury2.jpg|miniatura|alt=Photographie de Fleury avec le maillot blanc de Pittsburgh.|En 2003, la reconstruction des Penguins débute avec la sélection de Marc-André Fleury lors du repêchage de 2003.]]

Malgré le rachat par Lemieux, les finances de l'équipe sont encore juste et ils doivent se séparer de plusieurs gros salaires : ils vendent ainsi Jágr et František Kučera au cours de l’été 2001 aux Capitals de Washington en échange de trois joueurs et de 4,9 millions de dollars[52],[58]. Les conséquences de l’absence de Jágr ne se font pas attendre puisqu'à la fin de la saison 2001-2002 et pour la première fois depuis douze ans, les Penguins sont absents des séries éliminatoires[59]. Cette non-qualification entraîne le départ d'Alekseï Kovaliov, meilleur pointeur de l'équipe cette année[60], qui est vendu au cours de la saison suivante[61]. Celle-ci est une nouvelle saison sans séries puisque l'équipe termine à l'avant-dernière place du classement[62].

La saison 2003-2004 de la LNH est censée être une année de reconstruction pour les Penguins qui ayant le premier choix du repêchage d’entrée, sélectionnent le gardien de but Marc-André Fleury[63]. Cependant, les soucis financiers ne se résolvent pas pour autant et Lemieux commence à souffrir de la hanche dès le début de la saison : il doit alors rester au repos jusqu’à la fin de la saison et ne joue que dix matchs[64]. Fleury ne joue que 21 rencontres dans la LNH, passant le reste de son temps dans la Ligue américaine de hockey avec les Penguins de Wilkes-Barre/Scranton. Avec 52 points, le défenseur Dick Tärnström est le meilleur pointeur des Penguins qui sont une nouvelle fois éliminés des séries avec la dernière place de toute la LNH[57],[63].

La saison annulée de 2004-2005 et ses conséquences[editar | editar a fonte]

[[Fichier:Crosby.jpg|left|right|miniatura|upright=0.8|alt=Photographie de Sidney Crosby portant le numéro 87 des Penguins.|Sidney Crosby (ici en janvier 2006) est le premier choix du repêchage d’entrée de 2005.]]

La saison 2004-2005 de la LNH est annulée en raison d'un lock-out des dirigeants de la ligue alors que les rumeurs de départ de la franchise de Pittsburgh sont de plus en plus nombreuses en raison des difficultés financières croissantes. Lemieux déclare douter que la franchise puisse rester à Pittsburgh en grande partie en raison de la vétusté de la patinoire, le Mellon Arena qui est alors la plus vieille patinoire de la LNH. Plusieurs projets de construction de patinoire sont à l’étude aussi bien dans la ville de Pittsburgh que dans d’autres : Portland (Oregon), Kansas City (Missouri), Winnipeg (Manitoba), Hartford (Connecticut) ou encore Houston (Texas). La chambre de commerce de la ville de Pittsburgh estime la perte financière en raison des quarante-deux matchs annulés à environ 48 millions de dollars[65].

La saison 2004-2005 étant annulée, l'ordre du repêchage d’entrée de 2005 est déterminé par une loterie pour lesquelles les différentes franchises de la ligue ont un nombre croissant de boules par rapport au classement de la saison 2003-2004. Avec le maximum de boules, soit trois chances, les Sabres de Buffalo, les Blue Jackets de Columbus, les Rangers de New York et les Penguins ont le plus de chance de remporter le tirage au sort. Cette loterie spéciale a lieu le 22 juillet 2005 alors que les pronostics placent le jeune prodige de la Ligue de hockey junior majeur du Québec, Sidney Crosby, première position[66]. Finalement ce sont les Penguins qui gagnent le droit de choisir en premiers et Lemieux prévient avant le repêchage l'agent du jeune Crosby, Pat Brisson qu'ils veulent avoir Crosby dans leurs rangs[67],[68]. Les deux parties signent un contrat de Modelo:Unité[69] pour trois ans – le maximum pour un joueur recrue[Note 6] de la LNH[68]. À la suite d'une proposition de Brisson, acceptée par la famille Lemieux, Crosby vient habiter chez son président le temps qu'il se fasse au monde de la LNH[68].

À la suite de la grève, et à partir de la saison 2005-2006, un nouveau système de plafond salarial est mis en place après un accord entre l’association des joueurs et les propriétaires des équipes. Lemieux joue toujours et rêve d’emmener une nouvelle fois les Penguins en séries éliminatoires mais il est contraint d’arrêter et de raccrocher pour de bon ses patins le 24 janvier 2006[70],[71]. Le 17 avril 2006, Crosby devient le plus jeune joueur de l’histoire de la LNH à dépasser la barre symbolique des cent points inscrits — il égale alors le nombre de points réalisé par Lemieux au cours de sa première saison[72]. Le lendemain au cours du dernier match de la saison des Penguins, Crosby marque un but et une passe et dépasse ainsi le score de Lemieux de deux points[73]. Malgré les bonnes performances du jeune joueur, les Penguins finissent la saison à la dernière place de l'association avec le plus grand nombre de buts encaissés, seuls les Blues de Saint-Louis finissant derrière eux[74]. Le 20 avril, deux jours après la fin de la saison, la direction de l’équipe annonce que Craig Patrick, directeur général de l'équipe depuis décembre 1989, n'est pas reconduit dans ses fonctions. Il est remplacée cinq jours plus tard par Ray Shero[75].

[[Fichier:Jordan Staal 2009.jpg|alt= Jordan Staal et la Coupe Stanley|miniatura|Jordan Staal (ici en 2009) rejoint les Penguins au début de la saison 2006-2007.]]

Au premier tour du repêchage de 2006, les Penguins choisissent en deuxième et leur choix se porte sur Jordan Staal frère cadet d’Eric Staal champion en 2005-2006 avec les Hurricanes de la Caroline[76]. Le 5 septembre 2006, Shero annonce la signature du joueur russe Ievgueni Malkine, deuxième choix du repêchage de 2004 en provenance du Metallurg Magnitogorsk de la Superliga russe[77].

Le 2 mars 2007, Crosby devient le plus jeune joueur de l'histoire de la LNH à inscrire 200 points et seulement le deuxième joueur de moins de 20 ans à réaliser cette performance — le premier étant Wayne Gretzky en 1980-1981[78]. À la fin de la saison régulière, les Penguins comptent 105 points, dépassant la centaine de point pour la première fois depuis 11 saisons, et se qualifient pour les séries éliminatoires[59]. L'aventure ne dure pas longtemps puisque les Penguins sont écartés au premier tour par les Sénateurs d'Ottawa. Crosby finit tout de même la saison comme meilleur pointeur et remporte le trophée Art Ross[44]. Il reçoit également le trophée Hart du meilleur joueur selon les journalistes [44] et celui du meilleur joueur selon les autres joueurs, le trophée Lester B. Pearson[39]. Malkine, quant à lui, remporte le trophée Calder de la meilleure recrue[79]. Il compte 85 points, le meilleur total de la LNH pour les joueurs recrues[80].

L'équipe 2007-08 des Pens s'appuie une nouvelle fois sur Crosby, nommé capitaine de l'équipe en mai[81] mais aussi sur Malkine, Staal et Fleury. Le Modelo:1er janvier 2008, l'équipe est opposée aux Sabres de Buffalo pour un match en extérieur sur le terrain des Bills, équipe de football américain de la National Football League le Ralph Wilson Stadium. Le match, baptisé « Classique hivernale », voit la victoire des Penguins sur le score de 2-1, le but de la victoire étant inscrit par le capitaine des Penguins[81].

Le 22 mars 2008, Malkine devient le douzième joueur de l'histoire des Penguins à dépasser la barre des 100 points au cours de la saison à la suite d'une victoire 7 buts à 1 et trois points[81]. Premiers de la division lors de la saison régulière, les Penguins battent les Sénateurs d'Ottawa puis les Rangers de New York et enfin les Flyers de Philadelphie au cours des différents tours des séries. Ils se qualifient ainsi pour la finale de la coupe Stanley contre les Red Wings de Détroit. Ces derniers s'imposent 4 matchs à 2, malgré la victoire des Penguins lors du cinquième match de la finale sur la glace de Détroit au bout de trois prolongations par un but de Petr Sýkora[82].

Une nouvelle Coupe Stanley[editar | editar a fonte]

[[Fichier:Staal-Fedorov 2009.jpg|miniatura|left|alt=Photo d'une mise en jeu.|Jordan Staal à l'engagement contre Sergueï Fiodorov lors du premier match de la série contre les Capitals de Washington.]] Modelo:Article détaillé Avant les débuts de la saison 2008-2009, Shero décide d'assurer le long terme en signant des prolongations de contrat pour plusieurs des jeunes joueurs de l'équipe : Marc-André Fleury signe pour sept saisons avec Pittsburgh[83], Ievgueni Malkine pour cinq[84] et Brooks Orpik pour six[85].

Les Penguins débutent la saison 2008-2009 en jouant en Suède contre les Sénateurs d'Ottawa pour deux matchs à Stockholm les 4 et 5 octobre[86]. Quelques mois plus tard, les Penguins perdent deux des principaux défenseurs de l'équipe sur blessure : Ryan Whitney entre octobre et fin décembre et Sergueï Gontchar d'octobre à mi-février. Les résultats de l'équipe sont en dent-de-scie et au retour de Gontchar, les Penguins ne sont pas qualifiés pour les séries. La direction décide de se séparer de Michel Therrien et de le remplacer par l'entraîneur de l'équipe de la LAH, Dan Bylsma. Dans le même temps, Whitney rejoint les Ducks d'Anaheim en retour de Chris Kunitz puis avant la fin des échanges, Bill Guerin et Craig Adams rejoignent les Penguins[87].

Petit à petit, les Penguins remontent au classement pour terminer la saison à la deuxième place de la division derrière les Devils du New Jersey. Avec 113 points, Malkine est le meilleur réalisateur de la LNH et gagne le trophée Art Ross[44] alors Crosby est troisième du classement[88].

Les Penguins rencontrent au premier tour des séries les Flyers de Philadelphie. Le cinquième match de la série voit la victoire des Flyers sur le score de 3-0 alors que la salle est complète pour un cent-dixième match consécutif à guichets fermés[89]. Lors du sixième match joué à Philadelphie, le match débute mal pour les Penguins qui sont menés 3-0 avtn de se reprendre et de remporter le match 5-3 et par la même occasion la série 4-2[90]. Lors du deuxième tour, Pittsburgh retrouve les Capitals de Washington guidés par Aleksandr Ovetchkine, deuxième pointeur de la saison. La série se prolonge jusqu'au maximum, septième match de la série grâce à notamment une prestation de Semen Varlamov dans les buts des Capitals ainsi qu'au talent offensifs de Crosby et Ovetchkine. Lors du deuxième match, les deux joueurs vedettes, Crosby et Ovetchkine, inscrivent tour à tour un coup du chapeau pour une victoire 4-3 des Capitals[91]. Le septième match décisif a lieu dans la salle de Washington et après 31 minutes de jeu, les Penguins mènent déjà 5-0. Ils remportent le match et la qualification sur le score de 6 buts à 2[92].[[Fichier:Obama Pittsburgh Penguins 2009.jpg|miniatura|alt=Photographie du président Obama avec l'équipe 2008-09 et la Coupe Stanley|Barack Obama, président des États-Unis en 2009, reçoit les Penguins de Pittsburgh et la Coupe Stanley.]]

[[Fichier:Fleury, Crosby and Stanley Cup.jpg|miniatura|alt=Photo de Sidney Crosby portant la Coupe Stanley au-dessus de sa tête à côté de Marc-André Fleury ; tous deux portent des lunettes de soleil et une casquette de champion.|Marc-André Fleury, Sidney Crosby et la Coupe Stanley en 2009.]] La finale d'association est jouée contre les Hurricanes de la Caroline qui perdent totalement pied contre les Penguins et sont éliminés en quatre matchs. Contrairement à la saison précédente et à la superstition de la LNH[Note 7], Crosby en accord avec Bill Guerin décide de toucher le trophée Prince de Galles remis au champion de l'association[93].

L'équipe retrouve en finale les champions en titre, les Red Wings de Détroit. Après les deux premières rencontres et deux défaites de Pittsburgh 1-3, la finale semble prendre le même chemin que la saison passée mais les Penguins gagnent les deux matchs chez eux 4-2[94]. Lors du cinquième match, Chris Osgood blanchit les Penguins 5-0 puis les Penguins se reprennent en gagnant 2-1 devant leurs partisans lors du sixième match[95]. Le 12 juin, les Penguins remportent leur troisième Coupe Stanley sur glace de Détroit à la suite d'une victoire 2-1 grâce à un doublé de Maxime Talbot et à un double-arrêt de Fleury dans les dernières secondes de jeu[96]. Crosby devient le plus jeune capitaine de l'histoire de la LNH a soulever la Coupe Stanley à l'âge de seulement 21 ans. Malkine, meilleur pointeur des séries avec 36 points en 24 matchs, gagne le trophée Conn Smythe du meilleur joueur des séries[97].

Après la Coupe[editar | editar a fonte]

À la fin de la saison 2009-2010, Crosby termine avec 51 buts et dépasse pour la première fois de sa carrière la barre des cinquante buts en une saison. Il termine à égalité de buts avec Steven Stamkos du Lightning de Tampa Bay et les deux joueurs se voient récompenser par le trophée Maurice Richard du meilleur buteur de la saison[98]. Les Penguins terminent à la deuxième place de la division derrière et sont qualifiés pour les séries de la Coupe. Ils rencontrent une nouvelle fois les Sénateurs lors du premier tour et en viennent à bout en six matchs mais au cours du deuxième tour, ils sont éliminés en sept matchs par les Canadiens de Montréal[99].

Au début de la saison suivante, les Penguins inaugurent leur nouvelle patinoire du Consol Energy Center mais la saison de Pittsburgh est gâchée par les blessures des joueurs cadres de l'équipe. Ainsi Jordan Staal manque tout le début de la saison ; quand il revient au jeu en janvier, c'est au tour de Crosby puis de Malkine de se blesser. Ils manquent tous les deux la fin de saison mais malgré tout, Crosby finit meilleur pointeur de l'équipe avec soixante-six points. Deuxièmes de la division Atlantique, l'équipe de Pittsburgh perd au premier tour des séries en sept rencontres contre le Lightning de Tampa Bay[99]. Lors de la saison 2011-2012, Malkine inscrit un total de 50 buts pour 109 points en 75 matchs. Il termine la saison meilleur pointeur de la LNH et deuxième meilleur buteur derrière Stamkos qui compte 60 buts. En l'absence de Crosby, Malkine maintient les Penguins en haut de l'affiche de la LNH et les aide à se qualifier pour les séries. Au premier tour, ils affrontent les Flyers de Philadelphie et sont éliminés sur le score de 4-2[99]. Néanmoins Malkine remporte trois trophées : le trophée Art Ross, le trophée Ted Lindsay qui remplace le trophée Lester B. Pearson et enfin le trophée Hart[100].

Les débuts de la saison 2012-2013 n'ont lieu que le 19 janvier, un lock-out annulant toute la première partie du calendrier. Avec 56 points, Crosby termine meilleur pointeur de son équipe et remporte le trophée Ted Lindsay. L'équipe, premiers de leur division, est également la meilleure équipe de l'association de l'Est[101]. Les Pens éliminent au premier tour les Islanders de New York, 4-2, puis les Sénateurs d'Ottawa, 4-1, avant d'être éliminés en quatre matchs par les Bruins[99].

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]


Referencias
  1. http://pittsburghhockey.net/other-teams/pirates-nhl.  Parámetro descoñecido |prénom1= ignorado (suxírese |nome1=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |langue= ignorado (suxírese |lingua=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |nom1= ignorado (suxírese |apelidos1=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda)
  2. http://quakers.flyershistory.net.  Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |langue= ignorado (suxírese |lingua=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |nom1= ignorado (suxírese |apelidos1=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |prénom1= ignorado (suxírese |nome1=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda)
  3. 3,0 3,1 http://pittsburghhockey.net/other-teams/hornets-ahl.  Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |langue= ignorado (suxírese |lingua=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda)
  4. http://216.92.234.251/penguins.  Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |langue= ignorado (suxírese |lingua=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda)
  5. Modelo:Ouvrage.
  6. Harrap's 2003, p. 355
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 273
  8. 8,0 8,1 8,2 8,3 8,4 8,5 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 391
  9. 9,0 9,1 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 302-303
  10. Starkey 2006, p. 11-12
  11. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 214
  12. Modelo:Legendsofhockey
  13. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 286
  14. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 310
  15. Official Guide & Record Book 2010, p. 158
  16. Starkey 2006, p. 54
  17. 17,0 17,1 17,2 Starkey 2006, p. 55
  18. Starkey 2006, p. 37
  19. Goyens & Orr 2001, p. 72
  20. Starkey 2006, p. 62
  21. Goyens & Orr 2001, p. 74
  22. Starkey 2006, p. 64
  23. Starkey 2006, p. 66
  24. Official Guide & Record Book 2010, p. 159
  25. Starkey 2006, p. 69-71
  26. Starkey 2006, p. 93-95
  27. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 344
  28. 28,0 28,1 Starkey 2006, p. 98
  29. Modelo:Legendsofhockey
  30. Starkey 2006, p. 89-90
  31. Goyens & Orr 2001, p. 125
  32. Starkey 2006, p. 97
  33. Modelo:Legendsofhockey
  34. 34,0 34,1 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 392
  35. (en inglés) http://www.tsn.ca/story/print/?id=101779.  Parámetro descoñecido |jour= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |année= ignorado (suxírese |ano=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |mois= ignorado (suxírese |data=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda).
  36. Goyens & Orr 2001, p. 132
  37. Starkey 2006, p. 108-109
  38. Official Guide & Record Book 2010, p. 266
  39. 39,0 39,1 39,2 Official Guide & Record Book 2010, p. 217
  40. 40,0 40,1 Starkey 2006, p. 112
  41. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 274
  42. Starkey 2006, p. 113
  43. 43,0 43,1 43,2 Official Guide & Record Book 2010, p. 160
  44. 44,0 44,1 44,2 44,3 Official Guide & Record Book 2010, p. 215
  45. Starkey 2006, p. 118
  46. 46,0 46,1 Starkey 2006, p. 119
  47. Goyens & Orr 2001, p. 142
  48. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 3488
  49. Starkey 2006, p. 126
  50. Starkey 2006, p. 130
  51. Official Guide & Record Book 2010, p. 239
  52. 52,0 52,1 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 275
  53. Starkey 2006, p. 136
  54. Goyens & Orr 2001, p. 175
  55. Goyens & Orr 2001, p. 33
  56. Official Guide & Record Book 2010, p. 388
  57. 57,0 57,1 Official Guide & Record Book 2010, p. 417
  58. Modelo:Article
  59. 59,0 59,1 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 393
  60. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 366
  61. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 368
  62. http://www.nhl.com/ice/standings.htm?season=20022003&type=LEA.  Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |langue= ignorado (suxírese |lingua=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda).
  63. 63,0 63,1 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 50
  64. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 370
  65. http://pittsburghhockey.net/penguins/seasons-in-review/pittsburgh-penguins-2004-05.  Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |langue= ignorado (suxírese |lingua=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda).
  66. Richer 2008, p. 2 à 4
  67. Richer 2008, p. 8
  68. 68,0 68,1 68,2 Richer 2008, p. 58
  69. Richer 2008, p. 11
  70. [penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=494415 penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=494415] |url= incorrecto (Axuda).  Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |langue= ignorado (suxírese |lingua=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda)
  71. [penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=494414 penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=494414] |url= incorrecto (Axuda).  Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |langue= ignorado (suxírese |lingua=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda)
  72. Richer 2008, p. 344
  73. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 372
  74. Official Guide & Record Book 2010, p. 162
  75. Erro no código da cita: Etiqueta <ref> non válida; non se forneceu texto para as referencias de nome offpens2013_276
  76. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 270
  77. [penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=494781 penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=494781] |url= incorrecto (Axuda).  Parámetro descoñecido |en ligne le= ignorado (suxírese |data-arquivo=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |langue= ignorado (suxírese |lingua=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda).
  78. [penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=519604 penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=519604] |url= incorrecto (Axuda).  Parámetro descoñecido |en ligne le= ignorado (suxírese |data-arquivo=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |prénom1= ignorado (suxírese |nome1=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |langue= ignorado (suxírese |lingua=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |nom1= ignorado (suxírese |apelidos1=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda).
  79. Official Guide & Record Book 2010, p. 216
  80. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 374
  81. 81,0 81,1 81,2 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 376
  82. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 277
  83. http://www.rds.ca/hockey/lnh/journ%C3%A9e-charg%C3%A9e-%C3%A0-pittsburgh-1.189360.  Parámetro descoñecido |en ligne le= ignorado (suxírese |data-arquivo=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda)
  84. [penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=496067 penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=496067] |url= incorrecto (Axuda).  Parámetro descoñecido |en ligne le= ignorado (suxírese |data-arquivo=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |langue= ignorado (suxírese |lingua=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda)
  85. [penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=496069 penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=496069] |url= incorrecto (Axuda).  Parámetro descoñecido |en ligne le= ignorado (suxírese |data-arquivo=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |site= ignorado (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |langue= ignorado (suxírese |lingua=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |titre= ignorado (suxírese |título=) (Axuda); Parámetro descoñecido |consulté le= ignorado (suxírese |data-acceso=) (Axuda); Falta o |title= (Axuda)
  86. Podnieks 2009, p. 14
  87. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 378
  88. Official Guide & Record Book 2010, p. 163
  89. Podnieks 2009, p. 91-93
  90. Podnieks 2009, p. 94-95
  91. Podnieks 2009, p. 99-101
  92. Podnieks 2009, p. 114-115
  93. Podnieks 2009, p. 124-126
  94. Podnieks 2009, p. 128-140
  95. Podnieks 2009, p. 142-148
  96. Podnieks 2009, p. 149-150
  97. Podnieks 2009, p. 152
  98. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 380
  99. 99,0 99,1 99,2 99,3 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 394
  100. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 384
  101. 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide, p. 386

Véxase tamén[editar | editar a fonte]

Bibliografía[editar | editar a fonte]

  • Harrap's (2003). Harrap's Compact Dictionnary (en inglés). Chambers harraps Publisher Ltd. ISBN 2744121649. 
  • Starkey, Joe (2006). Tales from the Pittsburgh Penguins (en inglés). Sports Publishing Llt. ISBN 1-58261-199-8. 
  • Goyens, Chrys; Orr, Frank (2001). Mario Lemieux: Over Time (en inglés). Universe Publishing. ISBN 0-7893-0663-8. 
  • Richer, Shawna (2008). The Kid: A Season With Sidney Crosby and the New NHL (Broché) (en inglés). Triumph Books (IL). ISBN 978-1600781230. 
  • Podnieks, Andrew (2009). The Year of the Penguins. Celebrating Pittsburgh's 2008-09 Stanley Cup Championship Season (en inglés). Fenn Publishing Company. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-55168-333-1. 
  • NHL (2010). Official Guide & Record Book / 2010 (en inglés). Triumph books. p. 664. ISBN 978-1-60078-303-6. NHLrecords. 
  • Pittsburgh Penguins (2013). 2013.14 Pittsburgh Penguins Media Guide (en inglés). p. 418. offpens2013. 
  • NHL (2015). Official Guide & Record Book / 2016 (en inglés). Dan Diamond and Associates, Inc. p. 672. ISBN 978-1-894801-30-0. NHLrecords2. 

Ligazóns externas[editar | editar a fonte]


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