Imogen Holst

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Imogen Holst
Nacemento12 de abril de 1907
 Richmond, Surrey (Inglaterra)
Reino Unido Reino Unido
Falecemento9 de marzo de 1984 (76 anos)
 Aldeburgh, Suffolk (Inglaterra)
Reino Unido Reino Unido
NacionalidadeReino Unido e Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda
Educada enRoyal College of Music e St Paul's Girls' School
Instrumento(s)Piano
PaiGustav Holst
PremiosCBE
Membro honorífico da Royal Academy of Music
imogenholst.org
editar datos en Wikidata ]

Imogen Clare Holst CBE, nada o 12 de abril de 1907 en Richmond, Surrey (Reino Unido) e finada o 9 de marzo de 1984 en Aldeburgh, Suffolk (Reino Unido), foi unha compositora, arranxista, directora de orquestra, profesora e administradora de festivais británica. Única filla do compositor británico Gustav Holst, é especialmente coñecida polo seu traballo educativo no Dartington Hall na década de 1940, e polos seus 20 anos como directora artística adxunta do Festival de Aldeburgh. Amais de compoñer música, escribiu biografías de compositores, elaborou numeroso material didáctico, e varios libros sobre a vida e a obra de seu pai.

Dende moi nova, Imogen Holst mostrou un talento precoz na composición e a interpretación. Logo de asistir á Eothen School e á St Paul's Girls' School, ingresou no Royal College of Music, onde desenvolveu as súas habilidades como directora de orquestra e gañou varios premios de composición. Incapaz por motivos de saúde de seguir as súas ambicións iniciais de ser pianista ou bailarina, Imogen pasou a maior parte da década de 1930 ensinando, e como organizadora a tempo completo da English Folk Dance and Song Society. Estes deberes reduciron as súas actividades compositivas, aínda que fixo moitos arranxos de pezas populares. Logo de exercer como organizadora do Counsello para o Fomento da Música e as Artes ao inicio da segunda guerra mundial, en 1942 comezou a traballar en Dartington. Nos seus nove anos alí estableceu en Dartington como un centro importante de educación e actividade musical.

A principios da década de 1950 Imogen converteuse na asistente musical de Benjamin Britten, trasladouse a Aldeburgh, e comezou a axudar coa organización do festival anual de Aldeburgh. En 1956 converteuse na directora artística do festival, e durante os seguintes 20 anos axudouno a acadar unha posición preeminente na vida musical británica. En 1964 renunciou como asistente de Britten, para retomar a súa propia carreira como compositora e concentrarse na preservación do legado musical de seu pai. A propia música de Imogen non é amplamente coñecida e recibiu pouca atención da crítica; boa parte dela é inédita e non se interpretou nunca. A primeira gravación adicada ás súas obras, realizada entre 2009 e 2012, foi calidamente recibida pola crítica. Foi nomeada CBE en 1975 e recibiu numerosos honores académicos. Morreu en Aldeburgh e está enterrada no seu camposanto.

Antecedentes[editar | editar a fonte]

Primeiros anos e familia[editar | editar a fonte]

A casa na que a familia Holst viviu en Barnes entre 1908 e 1913.

Imogen Holst naceu o 12 de abril de 1907 no número 31 de Grena Road, Richmond, unha cidade ribeireña ao oeste de Londres.[1] Seus pais eran Gustav Theodore Holst, un aspirante a compositor e que logo traballaría como profesor de música, e Isobel, de solteira Harrison. A familia Holst, de ascendencia sueca, alemá e letona, estaba en Inglaterra dende 1802 e foran músicos durante varias xeracións.[n 1] Gustav seguiu esta tradición familiar; mentres estudaba no Royal College of Music (RCM) coñeceu Isobel Harrison, que cantaba nun dos coros afeccionados que el dirixía. Inmediatamente sentiuse atraído por ela, e casaron o 22 de xullo de 1901.[3]

Mentres tentaba establecerse como compositor, Gustav Holst traballor primeiro como trombonista nunha orquestra, e logo como profesor. En 1907 ocupou postos docentes en James Allen's Girls' School en Dulwich, e St Paul's Girls' School (SPGS) en Hammersmith, onde foi director de música.[4] Tamén ensinou en clases nocturnas no Morley College, un centro de ensino para persoas adultas no distrito de Waterloo (Londres).[5] Pouco despois do nacemento de Imogen a familia trasladouse de Richmond a unha pequena casa ao lado do río na próxima Barnes, que alugaron a un familiar. Os principais recordos de Imogen desta casa eran de seu pai traballando no seu estudo do andar superior, ao que se lle prohibiu visitar, e dos seus esforzos por ensinarlle cancións populares.[6]

Estudos[editar | editar a fonte]

Gustav Holst en torno a 1921.

As descricións de Imogen de pequena indican que tiña os ollos azuis, pelo loiro, unha cara ovalada que lembra á de seu pai, e un nariz bastante prominente herdado de súa nai.[6] En 1912, aos cinco anos, uniuse á clase do xardín de infancia do Froebel Institute, e permaneceu na escola cinco anos. Pasaban as vacacións a miúdo na casa de campo alugada polos Holst en Thaxted (Essex), onde Gustav Holst comezou un festival anual de Pentecoste en 1916.[7]

En 1917 Imogen comezou a estudar en Eothen, unha pequena escola privada para nenas en Caterham,[8] onde Jane Joseph, a alumna estrela de Holst no SPGS, ensinoulle música. Nunha carta á súa casa, datada o 17 de xullo de 1917, fala da "comprensión, e excelentes premios, e fresas e crema para o té".[9] Na escola, Imogen estudou piano con Eleanor Shuttleworth, violín con André Mangeot (descrito como "excelente") e teoría con Jane Joseph ("estupenda") "topping"). Baixo a tutela de Joseph Imogen realizou as súas primeiras composicións —tres pezas instrumentais e algunha melodía de vilancicos de Nadal— ás que numerou como Ops. 1, 2, 3 e 4.[10] No verán de 1920, compuxo e fixo a coreografía da "Dance of the Nymphs and Shepherds", que foi representada na escola baixo a súa dirección o 9 de xullo.[11][n 2]

Imogen deixou Eothen en decembro de 1920 coa esperanza de estudar con Ruby Ginner na Ginner-Mawer School of Dance and Drama,[13] mais foi rexeitada porque probablemente carecía de resistencia para unha carreira na danza. Mentres estudaba na casa baixo unha gobernanta durante seis meses, no Pentecoste de 1921 participou como bailarina nunha produción da semiópera de Henry Purcell Dioclesian, unha versión ideada en boa parte por Joseph.[14][15][16]

En setembro de 1921 Imogen comezou a estudar na St Paul's Girls School. En xullo de 1922 interpretou un Preludio e Fuga de Bach ao piano, que Joseph alabou calidamente escribindo: "Creo que todo o mundo disfrutou do Bach dende o principio ata o final, todos aplaudiron ao seu final".[17] Os anos de Imogen na SPGS foron polo xeral ledos e exitosos. En xullo de 1923 gañou o Alice Lupton, un premio júnior para pianistas, mais súas posibilidades de distinción como pianista víronse afectadas cando comezou a desenvolver flebite no seu brazo esquerdo.[18][n 3] Entre outras actividades, interesouse pola música folclórica e a danza, e en 1923 converteuse en membro da English Folk Dance Society (EFDS). En 1924–25, o seu último ano na SPGS, Imogen fundou unha sociedade de danza folclórica na escola. Nun concerto escolar de fin de curso a finais de xullo de 1925, tocou o Chopin's étude in E major e estreou a Toccata de Gustav Holst.[20]

Royal College of Music[editar | editar a fonte]

O Royal College of Music.

Aínda que destinada como seu pai ao RCM, Imogen primeiro pasou un ano estudando composición con Herbert Howells e piano con Adine O'Neill, mentres por outra banda ocupouse coas actividades da EFDS.[21] Comezou no RCM en setembro de 1926, estudando piano con Kathleen Long, composición con George Dyson, e dirección de orquestra con W. H. Reed. As súas aptitudes como directora foi evidente en decembro de 1926, cando dirixiu a Terceira Orquestra do conservatorio no primeiro movemento sa Sinfonía "Praga" de Mozart.[22] Esta e outras interpretacións no podio levaron a The Daily Telegraph a especular con que Imogen podería converterse na primeira muller en "establecer unha permanencia firme na plataforma do director".[23]

No seu segundo ano no RCM Imogen concentrouse na composición, producindo varias obras de cámara, incluíndo unha sonata para violín, un quinteto para óboe, e unha siute para madeiras. Deu os seus primeiros pasos cara á independencia persoal cando se trasladou da casa familiar a unha habitación próxima a Kensington Gardens.[24] En 1928 viaxou a Bélxica coa EFDS, tomou unhas vacacións en Italia, e fixo unha longa viaxe por Alemaña cun grupo coñecido como "The Travelling Morrice" que promoveu o entendemento internacional a través da música e a danza.[24] En outubro de 1928 gañou o premio Cobbett do RCM por unha composición camerística orixinal, o seu cuarteto Phantasy, e pouco despois gañou a Morley Scholarship para a "mellor estudante".[25] O cuarteto foi retransmitido pola BBC o 20 de marzo de 1929,[26] mais para ela, o logro foi eclipsado polas noticias da morte prematura da súa mentora Jane Joseph ese mes.[27][28]

No inverno de 1929 Imogen realizou a súa primeira visita ao Canadá e os Estados Unidos, como parte dunha celebración da EFDS.[29] De volta na casa, traballou na súa composición final para o RCM, unha suite para metais titulada The Unfortunate Traveller.[25] A pesar de certa aprensión pola súa parte, a obra superou o escrutino dos examinadores e foi interpretada no concerto de final de curso do conservatorio en xullo.[n 4] Imogen obtivo o seu diploma ARCM, e soubo tamén que lle concederan unha Octavia Travelling Scholarship que lle permitiría estudar composición no estranxeiro.[31]

Carreira[editar | editar a fonte]

Viaxes por Europa, 1930–31[editar | editar a fonte]

Imogen pasou a maior parte do período comprendido entre setembro de 1930 e maio de 1931 viaxando. A unha breve visita a Liexa en setembro seguiulle inmediatamente unha viaxe de tres meses por Escandinavia, Alemaña, Austria e Hungría, regresando a Inglaterra vía Praga, Dresde, Leipzig, Berlín e Amsterdam. A súa "orxía de experiencias musicais" incluíron unha peregrinación mozartiana a Salzburgo, representacións de Der Rosenkavalier e Die Entführung aus dem Serail na Ópera Estatal de Viena, Bach en Berlín e a Sétima de Mahler en Amsterdam.[32] O 1 de febreiro de 1932 partiu de novo, desta vez a Italia. Logo dunha viaxe de dous meses Imogen regresou a casa con cunha visión mixta da música italiana. Ela concluíu que "os italianos son unha nación de cantantes ... Mais a música é unha linguaxe diferente nesta parte do mundo". De volta en Londres, decidiu que a pesar das súas experiencias, "se é música o que un quere, non hai lugar coma Londres".[33][34]

Principalmente na ensinanza, 1931–38[editar | editar a fonte]

Cecil Sharp House, sede londinense da English Folk Dance and Song Society.

Cos seus fondos de bolsas de estudos esgotados, Imogen precisaba dun traballo, e en xuño de 1931 fíxose cargo da música no centro de artes e ensinanza Citizen House en Bath.[n 5] Non lle gustaba a disciplina imposta por un superior antipático e inflexible, e só permaneceu alí uns poucos meses.[36] Logo traballou como directora independente e pianista acompañante antes de unirse ao persoal da EFDS a principios de 1932. A organización expandírase ata converterse na "English Folk Dance and Song Society" (EFDSS) e estaba localizada na súa nova sede en Cecil Sharp House.[n 6] Os deberes, principalmente a ensinanza, non eran a tempo completo, e puido coller traballos a tempo parcial ensinando na súa antiga escola, Eothen, e en Roedean School.[39] Aínda que compuxo pouca música orixinal durante eses anos, realizou moitos arranxos instrumentais e vocais de melodías folclóricas tradicionais.[40]

A saúde de Gustav Holst fora pobre durante anos; no inverno de 1933-34 deteriorouse, e morreu o 25 de maio de 1934. Imogen determiou en privado que protexería o legado musical de seu pai, e comezou a traballar na súa biografía. Mentres tanto a súa propia música comezou a chamar a atención. O seu arranxo do vilancico "Nowell and Nowell" foi interpretado nun concerto de Nadal en 1934 na catedral de Chichester, e o ano seguinte viu a estrea do seu concerto para violín e cordas, con Elsie Avril como solista e a propia Imogen dirixindo a Orquestra Filharmónica de Londres.[41] En 1936 fixo unha visita a Hollywood, onde se quedou co seu tío (o irmán de Gustav), o actor Ernest Cossart. Un punto culminante desta visita foi un concerto de Wagner no Hollywood Bowl, dirixido por Otto Klemperer.[42] De volta en Inglaterra, Imogen traballou en arranxos para frauta de bico do descoidado compositor do século XVI Pelham Humphrey. Estes foron publicados en 1936 cunha entusiasta recepción da crítica. A biografía de seu pai foi publicada en 1938;[43] entre numerosos homenaxes, o compositor Edmund Rubbra eloxiouna por ter feito un libro que non estaba "nublado polo sentimento ... a súa biografía é á vez íntima e obxectiva".[44]

Guerra: viaxando para o CEMA[editar | editar a fonte]

Un concerto do CEMA durante a segunda guerra mundial (unha representación de Petia i volk de Prokofev polo Ballet Rambert).

En 1938 Imogen decidiu abandonar a música afeccionada e a ensinanza para concentrarse na seu propio desenrolo profesional. Renunciou o seu posto na EFDSS mentres continuaba a cos compromisos existentes coa organización. Renunciara ao seu traballo en Roedean en 1936; en Pascua de 1939 renunciou a Eothen. En xuño de 1939 comezou unha xira por Suíza que incluíu ao Festival de Lucerna. Contra finais de agosto, cando a guerra fíxose máis probable, interrompeu a viaxe e regresou a casa.[45]

Logo do estalido da guerra o 3 de setembro de 1939, Imogen traballou para a Bloomsbury House Refugee Committee, que apoiou a músicos refuxiados de Alemaña e Austria internados baixo regulacións de emerxencia. En xaneiro de 1949 aceptou un posto baixo o esquema organizativo do Pilgrim Trust, para actuar como un dos seis "músicos viaxeiros", cuxo obxectivo era impulsar a moral animando as actividades musicais nas comunidades rurais. Imogen foi asignada para cubrir o oeste de Inglaterra, un área enorme que se extende dende Oxfordshire ata Cornualles. Cando o goberno estableceu o Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts (CEMA), a responsabilidade sobre os "músicos viaxeiros" pasou a este corpo.[46]|group= n}}

Con pouco apoio práctico do CEMA, os talentos organizativos de Imogen, segundo a súa amiga Ursula Vaughan Williams, "desenvolvéronse de xeito brillante".[19] De acordo cos relatos de Imogen, os seus deberes incluían dirixir bandas locais, dirixir ensaios de himnos cantados ("catorce mulleres moi vellas con sombreiros sentadas ao redor do bordo dunha escura, vacía caseta de folla de lata"), e organizar cantos para nenos evacuados. Organizou actuacións de grupos profesionais, e o que ela chamou festivais "drop-in-and-sing" nos que calquera podía participar. Imogne tamén escribe sobre os "días idílicos" que pasou sobre tazas de té, debatindo as esperanzas e soños dos aspirantes a creadores musicais.[47] A súa actividade compositiva durante eses anos estivo limitada polo tempo e as presións do traballo, mais produciu dous tríos para frauta de bico —as suites Offley e Deddington— e realizou numerosos arranxos de vilancicos e cancións tradicionais para coro feminino.[48] No verán de 1942 a carga de traballo e a burocracia concomitante era tal que estaba esgotada, e precisaba dun longo descanso.[49]

Dartington[editar | editar a fonte]

O edificio principal de Dartington

En 1938, Imogen visitou Dartington Hall, unha escola progresiva e comunidade de artesáns próxima a Totnes, en Devon, que fora fundada en 1925 por Leonard e Dorothy Elmhirst.[50] En 1941–42, mentres viaxaba para CEMA por Devon e Cornualles, foi invitada polos Elmhirsts para establecer a súa base en Dartington. No verán de 1942, mentres se recuperaba alí, foi persuadida por Christopher Martin, o administrador do centro, para que renunciara ao seu posto no CEMA e traballara en Dartington.[51] El tiña en mente un curso de música, "o tipo de cousas que facía teu pai nos vellos tempos en Morley College".[52] A partir de 1943, Imogen creou un curso dun anos, inicialmente diseñado para capacitar a mulleres novas para organizar orquestras e eventos musicais en comunidades rurais. Gradualmente converteuse nunha educación musical máis xeral para unha maior número de estudantes. Baixo o liderato de Imogen o curso axiña se converteu no centro dunha gran variedade de actividades musicais, incluída a fundación de orquestras afeccionadas: "Case ningún de nos podía tocar ... Por moi malos que fóramos, continuamos".[53] Os métodos de ensinanza de Imogen, baseados en gran medida no "aprender facendo" e sen exames formals, desconcertou inicialmente ao estudantado e deixaron perplexa á inyección educativa, mais finalmente obtiveron aceptación e respecto.[54] Rosamond Strode, unha alumna en Dartington que posteriormente traballou con Imogen en Aldeburgh, dixo sobre o seu enfoque: "Ela sabía exactamente como, e cando, empurrar ás súas vítimas cara ao fondo, e sabía, tamén, que aínda que se tambalearían e chapotearían ao principio, non pasaría moito tempo ... elas estarían nadando de xeito sinxelo mentres ela emitía a aprobación dende o banco".[55]

No ambiente propicio de Dartington, Imogen retomou a composición seria, en boa parte abondoada durante os axitados anos do CEMA. En 1943 finalizou unha Serenade para frauta, viola e fagot, unha Suite para Orquestra de Corda, e unha obra coral, Tres Salmos. Todas estas composicións foroon interpretadas nun concerto adicado á súa música no Wigmore Hall o 14 de xuño de 1943. Outras composicións dos anos en Dartington inclúen o Tema e Variacións para violín solo, Trio para cordas núm. 1 (estreado polo Dartington Hall String Trio na National Gallery o 17 de xullo de 1944), cancións da antoloxía do século XVI Tottel's Miscellany, un concerto para oboe, e un cuarteto para cordas.[48][56] En outubro de 1943 o compositor Benjamin Britten e o tenor Peter Pears ofreceron o primeiro de varios recitais en Dartington. Un respecto e amizade mútua desenvolveuse entre Britten e Imogen, fortalecido polo seu compartido amor pola música descoidada do Renacemento e do Barroco.[57]

From 1945, while maintaining her commitment to Dartington, Imogen began to widen her musical activities. As well as editing and preparing scores for Britten, she promoted Dartington as the base for Britten's new English Opera Group, although eventually Glyndebourne was preferred.[58] In 1947 she encouraged the refugee violinist Norbert Brainin to form his own string quartet,[59] and arranged its debut at Dartington, as the "Brainin Quartet", on 13 July 1947. Six months later, renamed the Amadeus Quartet, the group appeared at the Wigmore Hall, and went on to worldwide recognition.[60] In 1948 she began work on a critical study of her father's music, a companion volume to her 1938 Holst biography.[61] When this was published in 1951, most critics praised its objectivity, one critic venturing that she had been "unnecessarily harsh" in her judgements.[62]

Rising standards of achievement at Dartington enabled Imogen to organise performances of more demanding works, such as Bach's Mass in B minor in July 1950 to honour the 200th anniversary of Bach's death. Three years in preparation, this endeavour brought a tribute from one of the audience: "I don't know, and can't imagine what the music of heaven is like. But when we all get there, please God, if any conducting is still necessary I hope your services will be required and that I will be in the chorus".[59] By the middle of 1950 Imogen's professional focus was changing. She had attended the first two Aldeburgh Festivals in 1948 and 1949, and in 1950 accepted a commission to provide a choral work for performance at the 1951 festival.[63] Sensing that it was time to leave Dartington, she gave a year's notice, part of which was spent on sabbatical, studying Indian music at Rabindranath Tagore's university in West Bengal.[64] A fruit of this visit was her Ten Indian Folk Tunes for recorder.[65] On 21 July 1951 her one-act opera, Benedick and Beatrice, was performed at Dartington, to mark her departure.[62]

Aldeburgh[editar | editar a fonte]

Without definite plans for her future after Dartington, Imogen toured Europe, collecting music that she would later edit for performance, including madrigals by Carlo Gesualdo which she found "very exciting".[66] At home, although not formally employed by Britten, she worked with him on several projects, including a new performing version of Purcell's Dido and Aeneas[67] and the preparation of the vocal and full scores for Britten's opera Billy Budd.[66] Pears, who had observed Imogen's overall contributions to musical life at Dartington, believed she could help Britten and the Aldeburgh Festival on a more formal basis, and shortly after the 1952 festival Britten invited her to come and work with him. She agreed, and in September 1952 moved to lodgings in Aldeburgh.[68]

Asistente de Britten[editar | editar a fonte]

Benjamin Britten, photographed in the mid-1960s

When Imogen joined Britten, the financial arrangement was vague; Britten paid her on a piecemeal basis rather than a regular salary, unaware that she had made over her rights to her father's estate to her mother and had little money of her own. As a result, she lived very frugally in Aldeburgh, but her commitment to Britten overrode her own physical comfort.[69] For the next dozen years her life was organised around the joint objectives of assisting Britten and developing the Aldeburgh Festival. Although she temporarily put her own compositional ambitions aside,[70] she did not abandon all other activities. She made many choral and vocal arrangements, promoted her father's music, and wrote books, articles and programme notes.[n 7]

For the first 18 months of her association with Britten, Imogen kept a diary which, Grogan says, forms a record of her "unconditional belief in Britten's achievement and status, and her absolute devotion to his work".[70] The first of Britten's works to which she made a significant contribution was the opera Gloriana, scheduled to form part of the 1953 Coronation celebrations. The short timescale for the writing of the opera placed considerable pressure on the composer and his new assistant,[73] strains that were dramatised 60 years later in a radio play, Imo and Ben.[n 8] Imogen's main task with Gloriana was to copy Britten's pencil sketches and prepare the vocal and piano scores which the singers needed for rehearsals by February 1953.[73][75] Later she assisted him with the writing of the full orchestral score,[76] and performed similar services with his next opera, The Turn of the Screw (1954).[77] When Britten was under pressure during the composition of his ballet The Prince of the Pagodas (1956), Imogen accompanied him to Switzerland, to remain by his side as he completed the work.[78][n 9] Imogen took great pleasure in her association with Britten's opera for children, Noye's Fludde (1957), for which she showed Britten how to achieve a unique raindrop effect by hitting a row of china mugs with a wooden spoon.[80] She and Britten combined to collect and publish music for the recorder, in a series published by Boosey and Hawkes (1954–59),[65] and jointly wrote a popular introductory book, The Story of Music (1958).[81]

Imogen assisted Britten with all his major compositions until 1964.[82] At that point, conscious of time passing, she determined to give priority to the final securing of her father's musical legacy, and to re-establish her credentials as a composer. She relinquished her post as Britten's assistant to Rosamund Strode, although she did not leave Aldeburgh or break with Britten, continuing her work with the Aldeburgh Festival for a further 13 years.[83]

Directora artística[editar | editar a fonte]

From the time of her arrival in Aldeburgh Imogen gave considerable support and assistance to the Aldeburgh Festival, as a conductor and, from 1953, increasingly as a planner and organiser.[84] In 1956 her position was formalised, and she joined Britten and Pears as one of the festival's artistic directors, taking responsibility for programmes and performers.[85] At the 1956 festival she fulfilled a long-held ambition by arranging a performance of Gustav Holst's opera Savitri,[86] the first of several Holst works that she introduced to the festival.[n 10] Savitri was offered as part of a double bill that included Imogen's arrangement of John Blow's 17th century opera Venus and Adonis.[86][88] In 1957 she instituted late-night concerts devoted to early music, and in 1962 she organised a series of evening concerts of Flemish music, in which she had more recently become interested.[89] She also devised frequent programmes devoted to church music, for performance at Aldeburgh parish church.[90] Since moving to Aldeburgh in 1952, Imogen had lived in a series of lodgings and rented flats. In 1962 she moved to a small contemporary bungalow built for her in Church Walk, where she lived for the rest of her life.[n 11]

In 1964, after giving up her role as Britten's assistant, Imogen began composing again, and in 1965 accepted commissions for two large-scale works: The Sun's Journey, a cantata for female voices, and the Trianon Suite, composed for the Trianon Youth Orchestra of Ipswich.[92] In 1965 and 1966 she published two books, studies of Bach and Britten. The latter work caused ill feelings among several key figures in Britten's earlier career with whom he had subsequently fallen out, such as his former librettists Eric Crozier and Ronald Duncan, whose contributions to Britten's success were ignored in the book.[93][94] Between 1966 and 1970 Imogen recorded a number of her father's works with the Purcell Singers and the English Chamber Orchestra, under the Argo and Lyrita labels.[95][96][97] Among these recordings was the Double Violin Concerto for which, forty years earlier, she had acted as the rehearsal pianist before the first performance.[98]

The concert hall at Snape Maltings, home of the Aldeburgh Festival from 1967

Imogen had formed the Purcell Singers, a small semi-professional choir, in October 1952, largely at the instigation of Pears.[99][100] From 1954 the choir became regular performers at the Aldeburgh Festival, with programmes ranging from rarely heard medieval music to 20th-century works.[64][101] Among choir members who later achieved individual distinction were the bass-baritone John Shirley-Quirk, the tenors Robert Tear and Philip Langridge, and the founder and conductor of the Heinrich Schütz Choir, Roger Norrington.[102][103] Langridge remembered with particular pleasure a performance in Orford church of Thomas Tallis's forty-part motet Spem in alium, on 2 July 1963.[104] When she gave up the conductorship of the choir in 1967, much of its musical mission, in particular its commitment to early music, was assumed by other groups, such as Norrington's Schütz Choir and the Purcell Consort formed by the ex-Purcell Singers chorister Grayston Burgess.[105]

On 2 June 1967 Imogen shared the podium with Britten in the concert inaugurating the Aldeburgh Festival's new home at the Snape Maltings.[n 12] From 1972 Imogen was involved with the development of educational classes at the Maltings, which began with weekend singing classes and developed into the Britten-Pears School for Advanced Musical Studies, with its own training orchestra.[106] By this time Imogen's performances at the festival had become increasingly rare, but in 1975 she conducted a concert of Gustav Holst's brass band music, held outdoors at Framlingham Castle. A report of the event described an evening of "persistent drizzle ... until a diminutive figure in a special scarlet dress took the conductor's baton. The band was transformed, and played Holst's Suite as it has never been played before".[107]

Britten had been in poor health since undergoing heart surgery in 1973, and on 4 December 1976 he died.[108] Imogen was unsure that she could maintain a working relationship with Pears alone, and on reaching the age of 70 decided she would retire as artistic director after the 1977 festival. That year she made her final festival appearance as a performer when she stood in for the indisposed conductor André Previn at the Snape Maltings Training Orchestra's inaugural festival concert. On retirement, she accepted the honorary title of Artistic Director Emeritus.[109]

Final da súa carreira[editar | editar a fonte]

Gustav Holst's centenary was celebrated in 1974, when Imogen published a revised biography in Faber's "Great Composers" series and a Thematic Catalogue of Gustav Holst's Music.[110] The centenary was the occasion for the publication of the first volume of a facsimile edition of her father's manuscripts, on which Imogen worked with the help of the composer Colin Matthews.[111] Three more facsimile volumes followed in the years up to 1983, at which point Imogen's own failing health led to the abandonment of the project.[112] As part of the 1974 centenary, Imogen negotiated performances of Savitri and The Wandering Scholar at Aldeburgh and Sadler's Wells, and helped to arrange exhibitions of Holst's life and works at Aldeburgh and the Royal Festival Hall.[110]

Apart from her books concerned with her father's life and works, Imogen continued to write on other aspects of music. In addition to numerous articles she published a short study of the Renaissance composer William Byrd (1972)[113] and a handbook for conductors of amateur choirs (1973).[114] She continued to compose, usually short pieces but with occasional larger-scale orchestral works such as the Woodbridge Suite (1970) and the Deben Calendar (1977), the latter a series of twelve sketches depicting the River Deben in Suffolk at different phases of the year.[115] Her last major composition was a String Quintet, written in 1982 and performed in October of that year by the Endellion Quartet, augmented by the cellist Steven Isserlis.[116]

In April 1979 Imogen was present when the Queen Mother opened the new Britten–Pears School building in Snape. The building included a new library—the Gustav Holst Library—to which Imogen had donated a large amount of material, including books which her father had used in his own teaching career.[117] She had intended that, after 1977, her retirement from the Aldeburgh Festival would be total, but she made an exception in 1980 when she organised a 70th birthday celebration concert for Pears.[116]

Morte[editar | editar a fonte]

Shortly after the 1977 Aldeburgh Festival, Imogen became seriously ill with what she described as "a coronary angina".[118] Thereafter, angina was a recurrent problem, although she continued to work and fulfill engagements. By early 1984 the deterioration in her health was noticeable to her friends. She died at home of heart failure on 9 March 1984 and was buried in Aldeburgh churchyard five days later in a plot next to Britten's.[119] An obituary tribute in the magazine Early Music emphasized her long association with music in the Aldeburgh church, where she "[brought] iridescently to life facets of that tradition to which her own life had been dedicated and which she presented as a continuing source of strength and wonder".[120] Ursula Vaughan Williams wrote: "Imogen had something of the medieval scholar about her ... content with few creature comforts if there was enough music, enough work, enough books to fill her days. Indeed, she always filled her days, making twenty-four hours contain what most of us need twice that time to do".[19]

In 2007, Imogen's centenary was recognized at Aldeburgh by several special events, including a recital in the parish church by the Navarra Quartet in which works by Purcell and Schubert were mixed with Imogen's own The Fall of the Leaf for solo cello, and the String Quintet. The latter work was described by Andrew Clements in The Guardian as "genuinely memorable ... The set of variations with which the quintet ends dissolves into a series of bare solo lines, linking Holst's music to her father's".[121]

Imogen never married, though she enjoyed a number of romantic friendships, notably with the future poet Miles Tomalin, whom she met when she was a pupil at St Pauls.[122] The two were close until 1929, and exchanged poetry;[123] Tomalin married in 1931.[124] Many years after the relationship ended, Imogen admitted to Britten that she would have married Tomalin.[124]

Homenaxes[editar | editar a fonte]

Imogen was made a Fellow of the Royal College of Music in 1966. She was awarded honorary doctorates from the universities of Essex (1968), Exeter (1969), and Leeds (1983). She was given honorary membership of the Royal Academy of Music in 1970. In 1975 she was appointed a Companion of the Order of the British Empire (CBE).[64]

Música[editar | editar a fonte]

Imogen Holst was a part-time composer, intermittently productive within her extensive portfolio of musical activities. In her earlier years she was among a group of young British women composers—Elizabeth Maconchy and Elisabeth Lutyens were others—whose music was regularly performed and broadcast.[125] According to a later critic, her Mass in A of 1927 showed "confident and imaginative layering of voices, building to a satisfying Agnus Dei".[126] However, for long periods in her subsequent career Imogen barely composed at all. After the RCM, her most active years as a composer were at Dartington in the 1940s and the "post-Britten" period after 1964.[40] Her output of compositions, arrangements and edited music is extensive but has received only limited critical attention. Much of it is unpublished and has usually been neglected after its initial performance.[127][128]

{{{1}}}

The oeuvre comprises instrumental, vocal, orchestral and choral music. Early in her compositional career Imogen was primarily influenced, as Gustav Holst's daughter, by what the analyst Christopher Tinker terms "her natural and inescapable relationship with the English musical establishment", and by her close personal relationship with her father.[125] Some of her first compositions reflect the pastoralism of Ralph Vaughan Williams, who taught her at the RCM.[129] In her teaching and EFDSS years during the 1930s she became known for her folksong arrangements but composed little music herself.[40] The personal style that emerged in the 1940s incorporated her affinity with folksong and dance, her intense interest in English music of the 16th and 17th centuries, and her taste for innovation. In her 1930 suite for solo viola, she had begun experimenting with scale patterns; by the 1940s she was incorporating her own six- and eight-note scales into her chamber music and occasionally into choral works such as the Five Songs (1944).[40][129] This experimentation reappears in later works; in Hallo My Fancy (1972) a new scale is introduced for each verse, while the choir provides free harmonisation to a solo voice.[40] In Homage to William Morris (1984), among her final works, Tinker notes her use of dissonance "to add strength to the musical articulation of the text".[130] By contrast, the String Quintet of 1982, the work which Imogen herself thought made her "a real composer", is characterised by the warmth of its harmonies.[40][128]

Much of Imogen's choral music was written for amateur performance. Critics have observed a clear distinction in quality between these pieces and the choral works written for professional choirs, particularly those for women's voices. These latter pieces, says Tinker, incorporate her best work as an original composer.[131] Record companies were slow in recognising Imogen's commercial potential, and not until 2009 was a CD issued devoted entirely to her music—a selection of her works for strings. The Guardian's reviewer welcomed the recording: "[T]here is a great deal of English music of far less worth that is frequently praised to the skies".[132] In 2012 a selection of her choral music, sung by the Clare College Choir, was recorded by Harmonia Mundi.[133] One review of this recording picks out Welcome Joy and Welcome Sorrow, written for female voices with harp accompaniment, as "[giving] an insight into her own, softly nuanced, pioneering voice".[127] Another mentions the "Three Psalms" setting, where "inner rhythms are underscored by the subtle string ostinatos pulsing beneath".[126]

Textos publicados[editar | editar a fonte]

Publication details refer to the book's first UK publication.

  • Gustav Holst: A biography. London: Oxford University Press. 1938. OCLC 852118145.  (revised edition 1969)
  • The Music of Gustav Holst. London: Oxford University Press. 1951. OCLC 881989.  (revised editions 1968 and 1985, the latter with Holst's Music Reconsidered added)
  • The Book of the Dolmetsch Descant Recorder. London: Boosey & Hawkes. 1957. OCLC 221221906. 
  • The Story of Music ("The Wonderful World" series). London: Rathbone. OCLC 2182017.  (co-author with Benjamin Britten)
  • Heirs and Rebels: Letters Written to Each Other, and Occasional Writings on Music, by Ralph Vaughan Williams and Gustav Holst. London: Oxford University Press. 1959. OCLC 337514.  (co-editor with Ursula Vaughan Williams):
  • Henry Purcell, 1659–1695: Essays on his Music. London: Oxford University Press. 1959. OCLC 602569.  (editor)
  • Henry Purcell: the Story of his Life and Work. London: Boosey & Hawkes. 1961. OCLC 1200203. 
  • Tune. London: Faber & Faber. 1962. OCLC 843455729. 
  • An ABC of Music: a Short Practical Guide to the Basic Essentials of Rudiments, Harmony, and Form. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1963. ISBN 0-19-317103-1. 
  • Your Book of Music. London: Faber & Faber. 1964. OCLC 170598. 
  • Bach ("Great Composers" series). London: Faber & Faber. 1965. OCLC 748710834. 
  • Britten ("Great Composers" series). London: Faber & Faber. 1966. OCLC 243904447. 
  • Byrd ("Great Composers" series). London: Faber & Faber. 1972. ISBN 0-571-09813-4. 
  • Conducting a Choir: a Guide for Amateurs. London: Oxford University Press. 1973. ISBN 0-19-313407-1. 
  • Holst ("Great Composers" series). London: Faber & Faber. 1974. ISBN 0-571-09967-X.  (second edition 1981)
  • A Thematic Catalogue of Gustav Holst's Music. London: Faber Music, in conjunction with G & I Holst Ltd. 1974. ISBN 0-571-10004-X. 

Imogen Holst also wrote numerous articles, pamphlets, essays, introductions and programme notes during the period 1935–1984.[n 13]

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

  1. O apelido da familia foi "von Holst" ata que Gustav mudouno en 1918, durante a primeira guerra mundial.[2]
  2. A música da danza "Nymphs and Shepherds" foi o Op. 4 de Imogen, orixinalmente titulada The Masque of the Tempest.[12]
  3. Nun tributo obituario, Ursula Vaughan Williams refírese ás condicións do brazo de Imogen como "herdada de seu pai".[19] De feito, Gustav Holst padecía de neurite no seu brazo dereito, unha condición igualmente incapacitante pero non relacionada.[18]
  4. En 1969, logo da morte de Isobel Holst, Imogen encontrou o manuscrito de The Unfortunate Traveller entre as posesións de súa nai. Para ela, a obra simbolizaba o que percibía como o seu fracaso como compositora, e insistiu en que se queimara o manuscrito.[30]
  5. A Citizen House fora fundada en 1916 por Helen Hope, como centro para o benestar social, a educación e as artes. Esta incluía un grupo de teatro os Citizen House Players, e finalmente un teatro con capacidade para 200 persoas.[35]
  6. A EFDSS creouse en marzo de 1932, logo de que a English Folk Dance Society, para a que Imogen traballara de xeito voluntario durante moitos anos, acordara fusionarse coa English Folk Song Society.[37][38]
  7. Books written by Imogen Holst in this period include The Book of the Dolmetsch Descant Recorder (1957);[65] Tune (1961);[71] and An ABC of Music (1963).[72]
  8. The play, by Mark Ravenhill, was broadcast on 30 June 2013.[74]
  9. Britten dedicated the ballet jointly to Imogen and Ninette de Valois.[79]
  10. In 1961 Imogen persuaded Britten to conduct Gustav Holst's tone-poem Egdon Heath, and the following year saw a performance of Ode to Death.[87]
  11. The house was built on the edge of the site where it had been hoped to build a Festival Theatre. When that plan was abandoned in favour of a move to Snape Maltings, the bungalow was built anyway by the architect H. T. Cadbury-Brown, who allowed Imogen to live there rent-free.[91]
  12. In 1969, just after the opening concert of that year's festival, the Maltings was destroyed by fire; it was rebuilt in time for the 1970 festival.[106]
  13. A partial list of articles and programme notes by Imogon Holst is included in the bibliography, pp. 464–65 within Grogan, Christopher (2010). Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 
Referencias
  1. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 2
  2. "No. 30928". The London Gazette. 1 October 1918. 
  3. Holst, p. 29
  4. Matthews, Colin. "Holst, Gustav(us Theodore von)". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Consultado o 21 February 2014.  (require subscrición)
  5. Warrack, John. "Holst, Gustav Theodore (1874–1934)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Consultado o 22 March 2013. require subscrición
  6. 6,0 6,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 2–3
  7. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 6
  8. Gibbs, pp. 29–30
  9. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 7–8
  10. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 9–12
  11. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 15
  12. Tinker and Strode, p. 451.
  13. "Ruby Ginner (1886–1978)". Oxford Index. Oxford University Press. Consultado o 21 February 2014. 
  14. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 16–17
  15. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 25–26
  16. Holst, Gustav (April 1931). "Jane Joseph: A brief discussion of her published music". The Monthly Musical Record: 97–98. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  17. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 18–20
  18. 18,0 18,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 22–26
  19. 19,0 19,1 19,2 Vaughan Williams, Ursula (1984). "Obituary: Imogen Holst, 1907–84". Folk Music Journal 4 (5). JSTOR 4522176.  (require subscrición)
  20. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 29–32
  21. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 33–40
  22. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 41–42
  23. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 46
  24. 24,0 24,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 49–52
  25. 25,0 25,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 72
  26. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 60
  27. Gibbs, pp. 50–51
  28. Gibbs, Alan. "Joseph, Jane Marian". Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press. Consultado o 23 February 2014. 
  29. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 67–70
  30. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 394
  31. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 74–76
  32. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 79–90
  33. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 91–93
  34. Grogan, Christopher (17 October 2007). "Daughter of the renaissance". The Guardian. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  35. "Little Theatre with a big heart celebrates 70 years in Bath". The Bath Chronicle. 30 December 2008. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 23 de setembro de 2015. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  36. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 97–99
  37. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", p. 100
  38. Keel, Frederick (December 1948). "The Folk Song Society 1898–1948". Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society 5 (3): 126. JSTOR 4521287.  (require subscrición)
  39. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 109–12
  40. 40,0 40,1 40,2 40,3 40,4 40,5 Tinker, Christopher. "Imogen Holst's Music 1962–64". Tempo (New Series) (166): 22–27. JSTOR 945906.  (require subscrición)
  41. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 114–18
  42. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 118–20
  43. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 124–25
  44. Edmund Rubbra in Monthly Musical Record, November 1938, quoted in Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 124–25
  45. Grogan and Strode, "Part II: 1931–52", pp. 126–28
  46. "The history of the Arts Council". Arts Council. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 03 de marzo de 2014. Consultado o 4 March 2014. 
  47. Imogen Holst essay, first published in Making Music, October 1946, reproduced in Grogan and Strode, "Part II: 1931–52", pp. 129–32
  48. 48,0 48,1 Tinker and Strode, pp. 454–55
  49. Grogan and Strode, "Part II: 1931–52", pp. 136–37
  50. Cox and Dobbs, p. 31
  51. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", p. 138
  52. Cox and Dobbs, pp. 10–27
  53. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 139–40
  54. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", p. 145
  55. Rosamond Strode, in an unpublished typescript, quoted in Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 154–55
  56. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 141–42
  57. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 150–51
  58. Carpenter, pp. 226 and 236
  59. 59,0 59,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 146–48
  60. Potter, Tully. "Amadeus Quartet". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Consultado o 19 February 2014.  (require subscrición)
  61. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", p. 151
  62. 62,0 62,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 162–65
  63. Grogan and Strode, "Part II, 1931–52", pp. 155–57. The work was the song cycle for female voices and harp, Welcome Joy and Welcome Sorrow.
  64. 64,0 64,1 64,2 Strode, Rosamund. "Holst, Imogen Clare". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Consultado o 17 February 2014.  require subscrición
  65. 65,0 65,1 65,2 Tinker, p. 436
  66. 66,0 66,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part II: 1931–1952", pp. 167–70
  67. Bridcut, pp. 72–73
  68. Carpenter, p. 309
  69. Carpenter, p. 311
  70. 70,0 70,1 Grogan, "Part III: 1952–54", p. 176
  71. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 364–65
  72. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 374
  73. 73,0 73,1 Carpenter, pp. 306–09
  74. Rees, Jasper (28 June 2013). "Imo and Ben: a new radio drama that shows the tensions in Benjamin Britten's working life". The Telegraph. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  75. White, p. 79
  76. Carpenter, p. 317
  77. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 334–35
  78. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 348–49
  79. White, p. 82
  80. Carpenter, p. 382
  81. White, p. 86
  82. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 361–73
  83. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 374–75
  84. Grogan, "Part III: 1952–54", p. 157
  85. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 336
  86. 86,0 86,1 Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 345
  87. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 366–67
  88. Carpenter, p. 369
  89. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 352 and 367–68
  90. White, p. 65
  91. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 369
  92. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 384
  93. Carpenter, pp. 468–69
  94. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 382 and 387
  95. Stuart, Philip (June 2009). "Decca Classical 1929–2009" (PDF). AHRC Research Centre for the History and Analysis of Recorded Music. Consultado o 21 March 2014.  (Items 1383, 1395, 1419, 1518 and 1688)
  96. "Holst: Vocal Works". Presto Classical. Consultado o 17 February 2014. 
  97. "Holst: Vocal Works". Presto Classical. Consultado o 17 February 2014. 
  98. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 388 and 399
  99. Grogan, "Part III, 1952–54", pp. 188
  100. Grogan, "Part III, 1952–54", p. 317
  101. Tinker, Christopher. "Holst, Imogen Clare". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Consultado o 17 February 2014.  (require subscrición)
  102. Grogan , "Part IV, 1955–84", pp. 371–72
  103. Pratt, George. "Norrington, Sir Roger Arthur Carver". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music online. Consultado o 17 February 2014.  (require subscrición)
  104. Wake-Walker, p. 190
  105. Grogan, "Part IV, 1955–84", pp. 389–90
  106. 106,0 106,1 Goodwin, Noel. "Aldeburgh Festival". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Consultado o 1 March 2014.  (require subscrición)
  107. Wake-Walker, p. 193
  108. Carpenter, pp. 549 and 585
  109. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 414–16
  110. 110,0 110,1 Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 406–07
  111. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 404 and 410
  112. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 419–20 and 429
  113. "Byrd (Great Composers)". WorldCat. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  114. "Conducting a Choir: a guide for amateurs". WorldCat. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  115. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 396 and 419
  116. 116,0 116,1 Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 425
  117. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", p. 422
  118. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 418–19
  119. Grogan, "Part IV: 1955–84", pp. 427–30
  120. Thomson, John (November 1984). "Imogen Holst". Early Music 12 (4): 583–84. doi:10.1093/earlyj/12.4.583. 
  121. Clements, Andrew (23 October 2007). "A Celebration of Imogen Holst". The Guardian. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  122. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 27–28
  123. Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", pp. 57–65
  124. 124,0 124,1 Grogan and Strode, "Part I: 1907–31", p. 66
  125. 125,0 125,1 Tinker, pp. 434–35
  126. 126,0 126,1 "Album: Imogen Holst Choral Works". The Independent. 25 August 2012. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  127. 127,0 127,1 Maddocks, Fiona (26 August 2012). "Imogen Holst: Choral Works – review". The Observer. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  128. 128,0 128,1 Tinker, p. 448
  129. 129,0 129,1 Tinker, pp. 444–45
  130. Tinker, p. 443
  131. Tinker, p. 440
  132. Clements, Andrew (30 January 2009). "Imogen Holst: String Chamber Music: Court Lane Music". The Guardian. Consultado o 24 June 2016. 
  133. "Imogen Holst: Choral Works". Presto Classical. Consultado o 8 March 2014. 

Véxase tamén[editar | editar a fonte]

Bibliografía[editar | editar a fonte]

  • Bridcut, John (2010). The Faber Pocket Guide to Britten. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-23776-0. 
  • Carpenter, Humphrey (1992). Benjamin Britten: A biography. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-14324-5. 
  • Cox, Peter; Dobbs, Jack (1988). Imogen Holst at Dartington. Dartington: Dartington Press. ISBN 0-902386-13-1. 
  • Gibbs, Alan (2000). "Chapter II: Jane Joseph". Holst Among Friends. London: Thames Publishing. ISBN 978-0-905210-59-9. 
  • Grogan, Christopher; Strode, Rosamund (2010). "Part I: 1907–31". Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 
  • Grogan, Christopher; Strode, Rosamund (2010). "Part II: 1931–52". Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 
  • Grogan, Christopher (2010). "Part III: 1952–54". Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 
  • Grogan, Christopher (2010). "Part IV: 1955–84". Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 
  • Holst, Imogen (1969). Gustav Holst (second ed.). London and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-315417-X. 
  • Tinker, Christopher (2010). "Part V: The Music of Imogen Holst". Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 
  • Tinker, Christopher; Strode, Rosamund (2010). "Chronological list of works". Imogen Holst: A Life in Music (revised ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-599-8. 
  • Wake-Walker, Jenni (compiler) (1997). Time and Concord: Aldeburgh Festival Recollections. Saxmundham, Suffolk: Autograph Books. ISBN 978-0-9523265-1-9. 
  • White, Eric Walter (1983). Benjamin Britten, His Life and Operas. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04893-8.