Robert Graves

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Robert von Ranke Graves, nado en Wimbledon o 24 de xullo de 1895 e finado en Deià o 7 de decembro de 1985, foi un escritor inglés, fillo do escritor irlandés Alfred Perceval Graves e de Amalie von Ranke Graves, descendente do historiador alemán Leopold von Ranke.

Traxectoria[editar | editar a fonte]

Estudou en Charterhouse School e no St John's College da Universidade de Oxford, pero cando se declarou a I Guerra Mundial, Robert alistouse case inmediatamente na Royal Welch Fusiliers, como un xeito de evadirse da súa familia e dun ambiente que non lle agradaba. As experiencias na guerra marcárono fondamente, en 1916 publicou o seu primeiro poemario, Over The Brazier, onde amosa todo o horror da guerra. Na batalla do Somme resultou gravemente ferido, con lesións permanentes nos pulmóns, e a pesar dos seus esforzos por volver á fronte, pasou o resto da guerra en Inglaterra. En 1917 Robert Graves xogou un papel destacado en salvar ao seu amigo, o tamén poeta, Siegfried Sassoon, dunha corte marcial despois que deixara a súa unidade sen permiso e escribira ao seu comandante denunciando a guerra.

Trala guerra Robert casa con Nancy Nicholson, filla do pintor William Nicholson, e continúa a estudar na Universidade de Oxford, ao tempo de monta unha pequena tenda, que resulta un fracaso e en 1926 acepta un posto na Universidade de Cairo, marcha alí coa súa muller, os nenos e a poeta Laura Riding, pero acabou deixándoo tras deixar a súa muller e acaba instalándose en Mallorca con Laura Riding ata o estoupido da guerra civil española, alí dirixen unha editorial, Seizen Press e editan o xornal literario, Epilogue. Escriben xuntos dúas obras académicas, A Survey of Modernist Poetry (1927) and A Pamphlet Against Anthologies (1928), que terán ampla influencia na crítica literaria moderna. En 1927 publica, T. E. Lawrence, Lawrence and the Arabs, unha biografía de Lawrence de Arabia con éxito comercial.

En 1929 publicou a autobiografía Goodbye to All That, unha crónica da perda da ilusión da xeración da posguerra que, a pesar de ser un grande éxito de vendas, lle custou a amizade con Siegfried Sassoon, Edmund Blunden e moitos outros dos seus amigos. Eu, Claudio (1934) é a súa obra máis famosa, nela Graves baseándose en fontes clásicas reconstrúe un complexo e completo relato do emperador romano continuada na súa secuela Claudius the God (1934), Graves conseguiu describir unha sociedade na que se abandonan os vellos valores sen que uns novos os substitúan, que era como el tamén vía o século XX. En 1936 marcha de Mallorca debido á guerra civil española. En 1938 publica outra novela histórica, Count Belisario, baseada no xeneral bizantino Belisarius.

En 1939, trala ruptura con Riding, regresa a Inglaterra, inicia unha relación con Beryl Hodge, entón a dona de Alan Hodge. En 1941 publica The Long Week-End, en colaboración con Alan Hodge, con el tamén publica The Reader Over Your Shoulder (1944), revisado en 1947 como The Use and Abuse of the English Language. En 1946 regresa a Mallorca, establécese en Deià e casa con Beryl en 1950. 1946 tamén é o ano da publicación de King Jesus, unha novela histórica. En 1948 publica a controvertida The White Goddess. En 1955 edita unha versión anotada de The Greek Myths. En 1956 publica un volume de relatos Catacrok! Mostly Stories, Mostly Funny. Entre 1961 e 1966 foi profesor de poesía en Oxford.

Poesía[editar | editar a fonte]

  • Over the Brazier (1916).
  • Goliath and David (1917).
  • Fairies and Fusiliers (1917).
  • Treasure Box (1920).
  • Country Sentiment (1920).
  • The Pier-Glass (1921).
  • Whipperginny (1923).
  • The Feather Bed (1923).
  • Mock Beggar Hall (1924).
  • Welchmans Hose (1925).
  • Poems. London (1925).
  • The Marmosites Miscellany (1925, co pseudónimo de John Doyle).
  • Poems (1914-1926). London: William Heinemann, 1927; New York: Doubleday, 1929.
  • Poems (1914-1927). London: William Heinemann, 1927.
  • Poems 1929. London: Seizin Press, 1929.
  • Ten Poems More. Paris: Hours Press, 1930.
  • Poems 1926-1930. London: William Heinemann, 1931.
  • To Whom Else? Deià, Mallorca: Seizin Press, 1931.
  • Poems 1930-1933. London: Arthur Barker, 1933.
  • Collected Poems. London: Cassell, 1938; New York: Random House, 1938.
  • No More Ghosts: Selected Poems. London: Faber & Faber, 1940.
  • Work in Hand, with Norman Cameron and Alan Hodge. London: Hogarth Press, 1942.
  • Poems. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1943.
  • Poems 1938-1945. London: Cassell, 1945; New York: Creative Age Press, 1946.
  • Collected Poems (1914-1947). London: Cassell, 1948.
  • Poems and Satires. London: Cassell, 1951.
  • Poems 1953. London: Cassell, 1953.
  • Collected Poems 1955. New York: Doubleday, 1955.
  • Poems Selected by Himself. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1957; rev. 1961, 1966, 1972, 1978.
  • The Poems of Robert Graves. New York: Doubleday, 1958.
  • Collected Poems 1959. London: Cassell, 1959.
  • The Penny Fiddle: Poems for Children. London: Cassell, 1960; New York: Doubleday, 1961.
  • More Poems 1961. London: Cassell, 1961.
  • Collected Poems. New York: Doubleday, 1961.
  • New Poems 1962. London: Cassell, 1962; as New Poems. New York: Doubleday, 1963.
  • The More Deserving Cases: Eighteen Old Poems for Reconsideration. Marlborough: Marlborough College Press, 1962.
  • Man Does, Woman Is. London: Cassell, 1964; New York: Doubleday, 1964.
  • Ann at Highwood Hall: Poems for Children. London: Cassell, 1964.
  • Love Respelt. London: Cassell, 1965; New York: Doubleday, 1966.
  • Collected Poems 1965. London: Cassell, 1965.
  • Seventeen Poems Missing from 'Love Respelt'. privately printed, 1966.
  • Colophon to 'Love Respelt'. Privately printed, 1967.
  • Poems 1965-1968. London: Cassell, 1968; New York: Doubleday, 1969.
  • Poems About Love. London: Cassell, 1969; New York: Doubleday, 1969.
  • Love Respelt Again. New York: Doubleday, 1969.
  • Beyond Giving. privately printed, 1969.
  • Poems 1968-1970. London: Cassell, 1970; New York: Doubleday, 1971.
  • The Green-Sailed Vessel. privately printed, 1971.
  • Poems: Abridged for Dolls and Princes. London: Cassell, 1971.
  • Poems 1970-1972. London: Cassell, 1972; New York: Doubleday, 1973.
  • Deià, A Portfolio. London: Motif Editions, 1972.
  • Timeless Meeting: Poems. privately printed, 1973.
  • At the Gate. privately printed, London, 1974.
  • Collected Poems 1975. London: Cassell, 1975.
  • New Collected Poems. New York: Doubleday, 1977.
  • The Centenary Selected Poems. ed. Patrick Quinn. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1995.
  • Complete Poems Volume 1. ed. Beryl Graves and Dunstan Ward. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1995.
  • Complete Poems Volume 2. ed. Beryl Graves and Dunstan Ward. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1996.
  • Complete Poems Volume 3. ed. Beryl Graves and Dunstan Ward. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1999.
  • The Complete Poems in One Volume ed. Beryl Graves and Dunstan Ward. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 2000.

Narrativa[editar | editar a fonte]

A maioría son novelas históricas.

  • My Head! My Head!. London: Sucker, 1925; Alfred. A. Knopf, New York, 1925.
  • The Shout. London: Mathews & Marrot, 1929.
  • No Decency Left (with Laura Riding) (as Barbara Rich). London: Jonathan Cape, 1932.
  • The Real David Copperfield. London: Arthur Barker, 1933; as David Copperfield, by Charles Dickens, Condensed by Robert Graves, ed. M. P. Paine. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1934.
  • I, Claudius. London: Arthur Barker, 1934; New York: Smith & Haas, 1934.
  • Claudius the God and his Wife Messalina. London: Arthur Barker, 1934; New York: Smith & Haas, 1935.
  • Antigua, Penny, Puce. Deià, Mallorca/London: Seizin Press/Constable, 1936; New York: Random House, 1937.
  • Count Belisarius. London: Cassell, 1938: Random House, New York, 1938.
  • Sergeant Lamb of the Ninth. London: Methuen, 1940; as Sergeant Lamb's America. New York: Random House, 1940.
  • Proceed, Sergeant Lamb. London: Methuen, 1941; New York: Random House, 1941.
  • The Story of Marie Powell: Wife to Mr. Milton. London: Cassell, 1943; as Wife to Mr Milton: The Story of Marie Powell. New York: Creative Age Press, 1944.
  • The Golden Fleece. London: Cassell, 1944; as Hercules, My Shipmate. New York: Creative Age Press, 1945.
  • King Jesus. New York: Creative Age Press, 1946; London: Cassell, 1946.
  • Watch the North Wind Rise. New York: Creative Age Press, 1949; as Seven Days in New Crete. London: Cassell, 1949.
  • The Islands of Unwisdom. New York: Doubleday, 1949; as The Isles of Unwisdom. London: Cassell, 1950.
  • Homer's Daughter. London: Cassell, 1955; New York: Doubleday, 1955.
  • Catacrok! Mostly Stories, Mostly Funny. London: Cassell, 1956.
  • They Hanged My Saintly Billy. London: Cassell, 1957; New York: Doubleday, 1957.
  • Collected Short Stories. Doubleday: New York, 1964; Cassell, London, 1965.
  • An Ancient Castle, London: Peter Owen, 1980.

Outros[editar | editar a fonte]

  • On English Poetry. New York: Alfred. A. Knopf, 1922; London: Heinemann, 1922.
  • The Meaning of Dreams. London: Cecil Palmer, 1924; New York: Greenberg, 1925.
  • Poetic Unreason and Other Studies. London: Cecil Palmer, 1925.
  • Contemporary Techniques of Poetry: A Political Analogy. London: Hogarth Press, 1925.
  • Another Future of Poetry. London: Hogarth Press, 1926.
  • Impenetrability or The Proper Habit of English. London: Hogarth Press, 1927.
  • The English Ballad: A Short Critical Survey. London: Ernest Benn, 1927; revised as English and Scottish Ballads. London: Willaim Heinemann, 1957; New York: Macmillan, 1957.
  • Lars Porsena or The Future of Swearing and Improper Language. London: Kegan Pall, Trench, Trubner, 1927; E.P. Dutton, New York, 1927; revised as The Future of Swearing and Improper Language. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1936.
  • A Survey of Modernist Poetry (with Laura Riding). London: William Heinemann, 1927; New York: Doubleday, 1928.
  • Lawrence and the Arabs. London: Jonathan Cape, 1927; as Lawrence and the Arabian Adventure. New York: Doubleday, 1928.
  • A Pamphlet Against Anthologies (with Laura Riding). London: Jonathan Cape, 1928; as Against Anthologies. New York: Doubleday, 1928.
  • Mrs. Fisher or The Future of Humour. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1928.
  • Goodbye to All That: An Autobiography. London: Jonathan Cape, 1929; New York: Jonathan Cape and Smith, 1930; rev., New York: Doubleday, 1957; London: Cassell, 1957; Penguin: Harmondsworth, 1960.
  • But It Still Goes On: An Accumulation. London: Jonathan Cape, 1930; New York: Jonathan Cape and Smith, 1931.
  • T. E. Lawrence to His Biographer Robert Graves. New York: Doubleday, 1938; London: Faber & Faber, 1939.
  • The Long Weekend (with Alan Hodge). London: Faber & Faber, 1940; New York: Macmillan, 1941.
  • The Reader Over Your Shoulder (with Alan Hodge). London: Jonathan Cape, 1943; New York: Macmillan, 1943.
  • The White Goddess. London: Faber & Faber, 1948; New York: Creative Age Press, 1948; rev., London: Faber & Faber, 1952, 1961; New York: Alfred. A. Knopf, 1958.
  • The Common Asphodel: Collected Essays on Poetry 1922-1949. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1949.
  • Occupation: Writer. New York: Creative Age Press, 1950; London: Cassell, 1951.
  • The Nazarene Gospel Restored (with Joshua Podro). London: Cassell, 1953; New York: Doubleday, 1954.
  • The Greek Myths. London: Penguin, 1955; Baltimore: Penguin, 1955.
  • The Crowning Privilege: The Clark Lectures, 1954-1955. London: Cassell, 1955; New York: Doubleday, 1956.
  • Adam's Rib. London: Trianon Press, 1955; New York: Yoseloff, 1958.
  • Jesus in Rome (with Joshua Podro). London: Cassell, 1957.
  • Steps. London: Cassell, 1958.
  • 5 Pens in Hand. New York: Doubleday, 1958.
  • Food for Centaurs. New York: Doubleday, 1960.
  • Greek Gods and Heroes. New York: Doubleday, 1960; as Myths of Ancient Greece. London: Cassell, 1961.
  • Selected Poetry and Prose (ed. James Reeves). London: Hutchinson, 1961.
  • Oxford Addresses on Poetry. London: Cassell, 1962; New York: Doubleday, 1962.
  • The Siege and Fall of Troy. London: Cassell, 1962; New York: Doubleday, 1963.
  • The Big Green Book. New York: Crowell Collier, 1962; Penguin: Harmondsworth, 1978. Illustrated by Maurice Sendak
  • Hebrew Myths. The Book of Genesis (with Raphael Patai). New York: Doubleday, 1964; London: Cassell, 1964.
  • Majorca Observed. London: Cassell, 1965; New York: Doubleday, 1965.
  • Mammon and the Black Goddess. London: Cassell, 1965; New York: Doubleday, 1965.
  • Two Wise Children. New York: Harlin Quist, 1966; London: Harlin Quist, 1967.
  • Poetic Craft and Principle. London: Cassell, 1967.
  • The Poor Boy Who Followed His Star. London: Cassell, 1968; New York: Doubleday, 1969.
  • Greek Myths and Legends. London: Cassell, 1968.
  • The Crane Bag. London: Cassell, 1969.
  • On Poetry: Collected Talks and Essays. New York: Doubleday, 1969.
  • Difficult Questions, Easy Answers. London: Cassell, 1972; New York: Doubleday, 1973.

Véxase tamén[editar | editar a fonte]

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