Péptido intestinal vasoactivo

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O péptido intestinal vasoactivo tamén chamado polipéptido intestinal vasoactivo ou VIP é unha hormona peptídica de 29 aminoácidos, que se produce en moitos tecidos de vertebrados, como o intestino, páncreas e núcleos supraquiasmáticos do hipotálamo cerebral. [1][2] O VIP estimula a contractilidade do corazón, causa vasodilatación, incrementa a glicoxenólise, fai baixar a presión arterial e relaxa o músculo liso da traquea, estómago e vesícula biliar. Nos humanos, o péptido intestinal vasoactivo está codificado polo xene VIP. [3]

O VIP ten unha vida media no sangue duns dous minutos.

Foi illado inicialmente de extractos intestinais e mostrou ter un potente efecto vasodilatador.

Funcións[editar | editar a fonte]

O VIP exerce efectos sobre os seguintes tecidos:

Tamén se atopa no cerebro e algúns nervios do sistema nervioso autónomo. O VIP intervén no control dos ritmos circadianos ao influír sobre unha rexión do cerebro que comprende os chamados núcleos supraquiasmáticos, onde está localizado o marcapasos dos ritmos circadianos. Os núcleos supraquiasmaticos coordinan a temporalización diaria do corpo e o VIP desempeña un papel chave na comunicación entre unha determinada célula do cerebro e esta rexión. Ademais, o VIP está tamén implicado na sincronización da función dos núcleos supraquiasmáticos co ciclo de luz-escuridade ambiental. Estes efectos combinados sobre os núcleos supraquiasmáticos fan que o VIP sexa un compoñente crucial da maquinaria de control dos ritmos circadianos nos mamíferos.

  • O VIP axuda a regular a secreción de prolactina [9]; estimula a liberación de prolactina no pavo doméstico.
  • A GHRH é un membro da familia do VIP, a cal estimula a secreción de GH na adenohipófise.

Patoloxía[editar | editar a fonte]

O VIP prodúcese en exceso no VIPoma.[5] Pode asociarse coa neoplasia endócrina múltiple tipo 1 (tumores hipofisarios, paratiroideos e pancreáticos). Os síntomas son tipicamente os seguintes:

  • Diarrea profusa non hemorráxica/non mucoide (3L+), que causa a deshidratación e os trastornos electrolíticos asociados como hipocalemia (baixa concentracón de potasio) e trastornos de alcalose metabólica.
  • Síntomas derivados que poden aparecer son letargo e esgotamento.

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

  1. Fahrenkrug J, Emson PC (September 1982). "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: functional aspects". Br. Med. Bull. 38 (3): 265–70. PMID 6129023. http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=6129023.
  2. Said SI (April 1986). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide". J. Endocrinol. Invest. 9 (2): 191–200. PMID 2872248.
  3. Linder S, Barkhem T, Norberg A, Persson H, Schalling M, Hökfelt T, Magnusson G (January 1987). "Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (2): 605–9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.84.2.605. PMC 304259. PMID 3025882. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=304259.
  4. Barada KA, Saadé NE, Atweh SF, Nassar CF. Neural mediation of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide inhibitory effect on jejunal alanine absorption. Am J Physiol. 1998 Oct;275(4 Pt 1):G822-8.[1]
  5. 5,0 5,1 5,2 Bowen R (1999-01-24). "Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide". Pathophysiology of the Endocrine System: Gastrointestinal Hormones. Colorado State University. http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/gi/vip.html. Consultado o 2009-02-06.
  6. "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide". General Practice Notebook. http://www.gpnotebook.co.uk/simplepage.cfm?ID=1892679719. Consultado o 2009-02-06.
  7. Bergman RA, Afifi AK, Heidger PM. "Plate 6.111 Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)". Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy: Section 6 - Nervous Tissue. www.anatomyatlases.org. http://www.anatomyatlases.org/MicroscopicAnatomy/Section06/Plate06111.shtml. Consultado o 2009-02-06.
  8. Sanders MJ, Amirian DA, Ayalon A, Soll AH (November 1983). "Regulation of pepsinogen release from canine chief cells in primary monolayer culture". Am. J. Physiol. 245 (5 Pt 1): G641–6. PMID 6195927. http://ajpgi.physiology.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=reprint&pmid=6195927.
  9. Kulick RS, Chaiseha Y, Kang SW, Rozenboim I, El Halawani ME (July 2005). "The relative importance of vasoactive intestinal peptide and peptide histidine isoleucine as physiological regulators of prolactin in the domestic turkey". Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 142 (3): 267–73. DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2004.12.024. PMID 15935152.

Véxase tamén[editar | editar a fonte]

Outros artigos[editar | editar a fonte]

Outras lecturas[editar | editar a fonte]

  • Fahrenkrug J (2002). "Gut/brain peptides in the genital tract: VIP and PACAP". Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. Suppl. 234: 35–9. PMID 11713978.
  • Delgado M, Pozo D, Ganea D (2004). "The significance of vasoactive intestinal peptide in immunomodulation". Pharmacol. Rev. 56 (2): 249–90. DOI:10.1124/pr.56.2.7. PMID 15169929.
  • Conconi MT, Spinazzi R, Nussdorfer GG (2006). "Endogenous ligands of PACAP/VIP receptors in the autocrine-paracrine regulation of the adrenal gland". Int. Rev. Cytol. 249: 1–51. DOI:10.1016/S0074-7696(06)49001-X. PMID 16697281.
  • Hill JM (2007). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide in neurodevelopmental disorders: therapeutic potential". Curr. Pharm. Des. 13 (11): 1079–89. DOI:10.2174/138161207780618975. PMID 17430171.
  • Gonzalez-Rey E, Varela N, Chorny A, Delgado M (2007). "Therapeutical approaches of vasoactive intestinal peptide as a pleiotropic immunomodulator". Curr. Pharm. Des. 13 (11): 1113–39. DOI:10.2174/138161207780618966. PMID 17430175.
  • "Quaternary structure of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthetase [Quaternary structure of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthetase]". Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 222 (4): 997–1000. 1975. PMID 807467.
  • Kitamura K, Kangawa K, Kawamoto M, et al. (1992). "Isolation and characterization of peptides which act on rat platelets, from a pheochromocytoma". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 185 (1): 134–41. DOI:10.1016/S0006-291X(05)80966-0. PMID 1318039.
  • Glowa JR, Panlilio LV, Brenneman DE, et al. (1992). "Learning impairment following intracerebral administration of the HIV envelope protein gp120 or a VIP antagonist". Brain Res. 570 (1-2): 49–53. DOI:10.1016/0006-8993(92)90562-N. PMID 1617429.
  • Theriault Y, Boulanger Y, St-Pierre S (1991). "Structural determination of the vasoactive intestinal peptide by two-dimensional H-NMR spectroscopy". Biopolymers 31 (4): 459–64. DOI:10.1002/bip.360310411. PMID 1863695.
  • Gozes I, Giladi E, Shani Y (1987). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide gene: putative mechanism of information storage at the RNA level". J. Neurochem. 48 (4): 1136–41. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1987.tb05638.x. PMID 2434617.
  • Yamagami T, Ohsawa K, Nishizawa M, et al. (1988). "Complete nucleotide sequence of human vasoactive intestinal peptide/PHM-27 gene and its inducible promoter". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 527 (1 Vasoactive In): 87–102. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1988.tb26975.x. PMID 2839091.
  • Bodner M, Fridkin M, Gozes I (1985). "Coding sequences for vasoactive intestinal peptide and PHM-27 peptide are located on two adjacent exons in the human genome". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82 (11): 3548–51. DOI:10.1073/pnas.82.11.3548. PMC 397822. PMID 2987932. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=397822.
  • DeLamarter JF, Buell GN, Kawashima E, et al. (1985). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide: expression of the prohormone in bacterial cells". Peptides. 6 Suppl 1: 95–102. DOI:10.1016/0196-9781(85)90016-6. PMID 2995945.
  • Linder S, Barkhem T, Norberg A, et al. (1987). "Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (2): 605–9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.84.2.605. PMC 304259. PMID 3025882. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=304259.
  • Gotoh E, Yamagami T, Yamamoto H, Okamoto H (1989). "Chromosomal assignment of human VIP/PHM-27 gene to 6q26----q27 region by spot blot hybridization and in situ hybridization". Biochem. Int. 17 (3): 555–62. PMID 3202886.
  • Yiangou Y, Di Marzo V, Spokes RA, et al. (1987). "Isolation, characterization, and pharmacological actions of peptide histidine valine 42, a novel prepro-vasoactive intestinal peptide-derived peptide". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (29): 14010–3. PMID 3654650.
  • Gozes I, Bodner M, Shani Y, Fridkin M (1986). "Structure and expression of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) gene in a human tumor". Peptides. 7 Suppl 1: 1–6. DOI:10.1016/0196-9781(86)90156-7. PMID 3748844.
  • Tsukada T, Horovitch SJ, Montminy MR, et al. (1985). "Structure of the human vasoactive intestinal polypeptide gene". DNA 4 (4): 293–300. PMID 3899557.
  • Heinz-Erian P, Dey RD, Flux M, Said SI (1985). "Deficient vasoactive intestinal peptide innervation in the sweat glands of cystic fibrosis patients". Science 229 (4720): 1407–8. DOI:10.1126/science.4035357. PMID 4035357.
  • Bloom SR, Christofides ND, Delamarter J, et al. (1984). "Diarrhoea in vipoma patients associated with cosecretion of a second active peptide (peptide histidine isoleucine) explained by single coding gene". Lancet 2 (8360): 1163–5. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(83)91215-1. PMID 6139527.

Ligazóns externas[editar | editar a fonte]