Lingua hebrea

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Hebreo
עברית (ʿIvrit)
Pronuncia: [(ʔ)ivˈʁit] - [(ʔ)ivˈɾit]
Falado en: Flag of Israel.svg Israel, Cisxordania e Faixa de Gaza[1] usado globalmente como lingua litúrxica polo xudaísmo
Total de falantes: 5,3 millóns (non todos son nativos)
Familia: Afroasiática
 Semítica
  Semítica central
   Semítica noroeste
    Cananea
     Hebreo
Escrita: Alfabeto hebreo
Braille hebreo
Estatuto oficial
Lingua oficial de: Flag of Israel.svg Israel
Polonia Polonia (Recoñecida como lingua minoritaria)[2]
Regulado por: Academia da Lingua Hebrea
האקדמיה ללשון העברית (HaAkademia LaLashon HaʿIvrit)
Códigos de lingua
ISO 639-1: he
ISO 639-2: heb

O hebreo ou hebraico[3] (en hebreo: עִבְרִית ʿIvrit) é é unha lingua semítica da familia lingüística afroasiática. Historicamente, é a lingua iraelistas e os seus antergos, malia que a lingua non aparece co nome de hebreo no Tanakh. No Tanakh (Biblia xudía), a lingua é chamada "yehudit" (a lingua de Xudá) ou "səpaṯ kəna‘an" (a lingua de Canaan). Os exemplos máis antigos de paleohebreo datan do século -X, na forma de debuxos primitivos, mais "a cuestión da lingua usada na inscrición queda sen responder, facendo imposible probar que era hebreo e non outra lingua local".[4]

Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between the first and fourth centuries CE[5] and survived into the medieval period only as the language of Jewish liturgy and rabbinic literature. Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language, and, according to Ethnologue, is now the language of 9 million people worldwide,[6][7] of whom 7 million are from Israel.[8] The United States has the second largest Hebrew speaking population, with about 221,593 fluent speakers,[9] mostly from Israel.

Modern Hebrew is one of the two official languages of Israel (the other being Arabic), while Biblical Hebrew is used for prayer or study in Jewish communities around the world today. Ancient Hebrew is also the liturgical tongue of the Samaritans, while modern Hebrew or Arabic is their vernacular. As a foreign language, it is studied mostly by Jews and students of Judaism and Israel, and by archaeologists and linguists specializing in the Middle East and its civilizations, as well as by theologians, and in Christian seminaries.

The Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible), and most of the rest of the Hebrew Bible, is written in Biblical Hebrew, and much of its present form is specifically the dialect of Biblical Hebrew that scholars believe flourished around the 6th century BCE, around the time of the Babylonian exile. For this reason, Hebrew has been referred to by Jews as Leshon HaKodesh (לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ), "The Holy Language", since ancient times.

Historia[editar | editar a fonte]

Cartel en hebreo coa súa transliteración en alfabeto latino nunha rúa de Tel Aviv.

O hebreo é unha macrolingua con case 30 séculos de historia escrita. Obviamente nun período tan longo a lingua sufriu procesos de cambio lingüístico que fan que o hebreo antigo e o hebreo actual, máis que unha mesma lingua, poidan considerarse linguas emparentadas pero que difiren na pronunciación, na gramática e no léxico. Nun sentido parecido, o latín e as linguas románicas son linguas claramente emparentadas pero difiren nun número de aspectos, a tal punto que os modernos falantes non poden comprender o latín clásico sen unha aprendizaxe específica dos elementos básicos da lingua antiga.

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

  1. "CIA's World Fact Book". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2098.html?countryName=&countryCode=&regionCode=o. Consultado o 2013-04-25.
  2. http://www.efnil.org/documents/conference-publications/dublin-2009/16-Dublin-Pisarek-Mother.pdf
  3. Definicións no Dicionario da Real Academia Galega e no Portal das Palabras para hebraico.
  4. "Most ancient Hebrew biblical inscription deciphered". Physorg.com. http://www.physorg.com/news182101034.html. Consultado o 25 de abril de 2013.
  5. "If you couldn't speak Greek by say the time of early Christianity you couldn't get a job. You wouldn't get a good job. a professional job. You had to know Greek in addition to your own language. And so you were getting to a point where Jews...the Jewish community in say Egypt and large cities like Alexandria didn't know Hebrew anymore they only knew Greek. And so you need a Greek version in the synagogue." -- Josheph Blankinsopp, Professor of Biblical Studies University of Notre Dame in A&E's Who Wrote the Bible
  6. Klein, Zeev (March 18, 2013). "A million and a half Israelis struggle with Hebrew". Israel Hayom. http://www.israelhayom.com/site/newsletter_article.php?id=8065. Consultado o 2 November 2013.
  7. Nachman Gur, Behadrey Haredim. "Kometz Aleph – Au• How many Hebrew speakers are there in the world?". http://www.bhol.co.il/article_en.aspx?id=52405. Consultado o 2 November 2013.
  8. "Hebrew - UCL". University College London. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/clie/learning-resources/sac/hebrew. Consultado o 2 November 2013.
  9. "Table 53. Languages Spoken At Home by Language: 2009", The 2012 Statistical Abstract (U.S. Census Bureau), http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/population/ancestry_language_spoken_at_home.html, consultado o 2011-12-27

Véxase tamén[editar | editar a fonte]

Wikipedia
Existe unha versión da Wikipedia en Lingua hebrea.



Linguas semíticas
Ugarítico † | Fenicio † | Púnico † | Hebreo | Amonita † |
Moabita † | Edomita † | Arameo | Acadio † | Babilonio † | Asirio † | Árabe | Sudarábiga | Etiópico